Women Organizers in the Civil Rights Movement

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Women organizers in the Civil Rights movement (1950's-1960's)

Women have always been regarded as key parental figure in raising and developing children in the society. During the period of 1950 to 1970, many parts of the world were marred with civil rights movement. The movements were characterized with protests and civil resistance complaining about discrimination economic and political self sufficiency. Women took up the initiative to participate in these movements. This situation later led to serious confrontation between government authorities and activists. Thousands of people took part in the civil right movement of that period especially in the United States. The key leaders of the campaign, include; Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael, Rosa Parks, James Meredith and Medgar Evers, played crucial roles for of the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement in America[1]. This paper covers factors that motivated women, the contributions they had, roles they played as well as the problems they encountered during the civil rights movement of 1950’s and 1960’s. Most of the women who were involved in these movements were born during the slavery period, hence the pain and suffering they experienced at that time stimulated them to speak out against oppression. One of the most vocal women who started to speak against oppression was Wells Barnett. She began her struggle in 1909, by travelling abroad to seek international attention on this issue[2]. She also formed National association for the advanced of Colored people. Her efforts were later joined by the struggle for gender sensitization by Mary Church Terrell. She was very vocal and spoke about segregation of the blacks in public eating joints. She led most of the citizens to boycotts and picketing to attract attention to racial injustice[3]. She established the black club movement that led to the formation of National Association of Colored Women similar to that of Barnett. She was



Bibliography: Bermanzohn, Sally Avery. "Violence, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement." New Political Science 22, no. 1 (March 2000): 31-48. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 15, 2011). Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Bearing witness: selections from African-American autobiography in the twentieth century. New York: Pantheon Books, (1991). Greenblatt, Alan. "Race in America." CQ Researcher 13, no. 25 (July 11, 2003): 593-624. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2003071100. Hine, Darlene Clark. Hine sight: black women and the re-construction of of American history. Bloomington: Indiana University, (1994). Jost, Kenneth. "School Desegregation." CQ Researcher 14, no. 15 (April 23, 2004): 345-72. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2004042300. Naylor Gloria. Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad, (1993). [2] Darlene, Hine Clark. Hine sight: black women and the re-construction of of American history. Bloomington: Indiana University, (1994). [3] Naylor Gloria. Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad, (1993). [4] Henry Louis, Gates Jr. Bearing witness: selections from African-American autobiography in the twentieth century. New York: Pantheon Books, (1991). [5] Darlene, Hine Clark. Hine sight: black women and the re-construction of of American history. Bloomington: Indiana University, (1994). [6] Sally Bermanzohn, Avery. "Violence, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement." New Political Science 22, no. 1 (March 2000): 31-48. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 15, 2011). [7] Greenblatt, Alan. "Race in America." CQ Researcher 13, no. 25 (July 11, 2003): 593-624. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2003071100. [8] Bermanzohn, Sally Avery. "Violence, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement." New Political Science 22, no. 1 (March 2000): 31-48. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 15, 2011). [9] Gates, Henry Louis Jr. Bearing witness: selections from African-American autobiography in the twentieth century. New York: Pantheon Books, (1991). [10] Hine, Darlene Clark. Hine sight: black women and the re-construction of of American history. Bloomington: Indiana University, (1994). [11] Jost, Kenneth. "School Desegregation." CQ Researcher 14, no. 15 (April 23, 2004): 345-72. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2004042300. [12] Jost, Kenneth. "School Desegregation." CQ Researcher 14, no. 15 (April 23, 2004): 345-72. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2004042300. [13] Hine, Darlene Clark. Hine sight: black women and the re-construction of of American history. Bloomington: Indiana University, (1994). [14] Greenblatt, Alan. "Race in America." CQ Researcher 13, no. 25 (July 11, 2003): 593-624. http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/cqresrre2003071100. [15] Gloria Naylor. Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad, (1993).

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