Topics: Woman, Gender, Gender equality Pages: 6 (1142 words) Published: January 23, 2013
1.“Gender equality and women empowerment in Pakistan” Rashida Patel •Analysis of the situation of women in Pakistan
Continuous and increasing misinterpretation of Islam

2.“Women in Pakistan” Heinz Gunther Klien
Obstacles and opportunities for development of women in Pakistan •Focuses on vocational development and cottage industry

3.“My Feudal Lord” Tehmina Durrani
Story of domestic violence in Pakistan

1)“Never underestimate a man’s ability to underestimate a woman” 2)“If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves” Mary Astell 3)“Gender equality is critical to the development of peace of every nation” Kofi Annan 4)“Educate a man and you educate an individual, educate a woman and you educate a family” A. Cripps 5)“Girls should be regarded not as adjectives but as nouns” Elizabeth Stanton 6)“Women’s chains have been forged by men , not anatomy” Estelle Ramey

Same religious/spiritual obligations
Belief that both created from a single soul as opposed to .. •Early Christian belief that women did not have a soul
Daughter---Right to education, Abolishing female infanticide •Wife---can’t be forced to marry, Haq –Mahr, Right to divorce, Permission to keep maiden name, •Mother---“Heaven lies under mother’s feet”—Exalted status

Right to keep her income to herself. No compulsion of sharing it •Right to seek employment
Right to conduct business
Right to own property

Both genders equal before law
Right to contest elections
Have led military expeditions
Right to hold public office--Prophet Muhammad(S) appointed a female controller of market in Medina

Not a rule but an exception
A lot of emphasis on asymmetric treatment of wives
Comes under the category of “Mubah”
2)Share in property
Half compared to brothers
Because she also gets a share from her husband
Because she is not responsible for supporting her family, whereas men are. 3)Head of state
Cant hold the position of a head of the state
In Islamic political system head of state is not a mere figurehead—needs to make important decisions round the clock and •Women not fit to make decision during their “period” therefore not fit to become head of state….p.s. Mullah argument , not mine •Women are emotionally weak ..therefore no female prophets. •Btw no American female presidents to date

2 female witnesses =1 male witness in “finance related” cases •Bearing witness is no right but a burden. Islam does a favour to women by discouraging their “shahadats” 5)Veil
Reveled vs Re-veiled
Mark of respect not a constraint on freedom
Problem—Orthodox vs Heterodox
Problem not in Islam but in interpretation of Islam—eg.-The use of word “Qawamum” in (4:34) Orthodox translate it as “ruler”---they interpret the verse as “Men are rulers of women” Heterodox translate this word as “manager/guardian”---------“Men are guardians/managers of women”


Ancient past:
1)Hinduism--- Women’ s income shared by husband+ Practice of Sati 2)Greeks---Women considered minors
3)Romans---Women were supposed to be under constant tutelage of men 4)English Law---Women’s property became man’s property after marriage 5)Bible(Old Testament)---Right of divorce held solely by men 6)Rousseau in his famous book “Emile” argues a diff education system for women because of their intellectual inferiority

Change takes place:
1.Industrial revolution and the rise of feminism
2.Universal suffrage in USA in 1920 and in UK in 1928

Recent Past:
1.UDHR—Article—No gender discrimination
2.UN Commission on Status of Women, 1946----Promote and monitor women rights 3.Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,1979---Pakistan acceded but has not...
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