Topics: Wine, Yeast, Fermentation Pages: 21 (6234 words) Published: October 5, 2014
I. Introduction
Wines have been one of the favorite beverages in the world. Many Europeans nowadays prefer wine to water as a daily beverage like their ancestors many centuries ago, despite of its bad effects in the health when consumed excessively. Different varieties of the grapes and strains of yeast produce different type of wine. Wines are alcoholic beverage that is usually made from grapes and other fermented juice like apples and berries. The fermentation takes place in the district origin, according to local tradition and practice. Only a relatively small area of the world is “wine producing.” This is because the grapes will only provide juice of the quality necessary for conversion into a drinkable wine where there must be enough sun to ripen the grape and the winter must be moderate, yet sufficient cool. Wines, which are widely known to be a delicious beverage, are also known for its significant uses. II. Body

A. Definition of Wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of grape juice and other fruits, such as apples and berries. The English word “wine” comes from the Proto-Germanic “*winam,” an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, “wine” or “grapewine,” itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. Although other fruits can be fermented, the resultant “wines” are normally named after the fruits from it produce, like apple wine or elderberry wine, and are generically known as fruit or country wine. Others are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer more than wine, such as barley wine and rice wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy.

In these cases, the use of the term “wine” is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process. The commercial use of the English word “wine,” and its equivalent in other language, is protected by the law in many jurisdictions. B. History of Wines

Archeological evidences suggest that the earliest known production of wine took place from sites in Georgia and Armenia from as early as 8000 – 6000 BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grape Vitis vinifera.

Dr. Patrick McGovern and his colleagues analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars through an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgina, where also wine residues were discovered on the inner surfaces of 8000-year-old-ramic storage jars in Shulavari, Georgina. In his book “Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture,” McGovern proposes modern-day Georgia and Armenia as the likely sites of the domestication of the Eurasian wine grape some 8000 years ago. Winemaking spread south out there with wines being produced in northwest Iran and Haiji Firuz Tepe by 5400 BC. A little more than 4,000 years later, Near Eastern wine culture had evolved to the point where amphoras found in the palace of Amenhotep III in western Thebes noted vintage, quality, appellation, and even the purpose or occasion for the blend. The very oldest known evidence suggesting wine production in Europe and second oldest in the world comes from archeological sites in Greece also contain remnants of the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes.

In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine which they required it for the Mass. In places like Germany, beer was banned and considered pagan and barbaric while wine consumption was viewed as civilized and a sign of conversion. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. And old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining while from bastard – bad or tainted bastardo wine.

Viticulture foundation the Romans laid in the land that today are world renowned wine regions is one of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire. Areas with Roman garrison towns, like Bordeaux, Trier, and Colchester, the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs...

Bibliography: Coates, Clive, M.V. The Wines of Burgundy. USA: University of California Press. 2008
Goode, Jamie
McGovern, Patrick E. Ancient wine: the search for the origins of viniculture. New Jersy, United Kingdom: Princeton University Press. 2003
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Kerridge, George and Angela Gackle. Vines for Wines: A Wine Lover’s Guide to the Top Wine Grape Varieties. Australia: Csiro Publishing. 2005
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Shreve, Norris R., et al. Chemical Process Industries 4th Edition. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1978
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“Wine Making Process.” 25 Feb. 2011

Source: Food and Beverage Service, 6th Edition, 2002
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