William Howard Taft
Birthplace: Cincinnati, Ohio
William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati on Sept. 15, 1857. A Yale graduate, he entered Ohio Republican politics in the 1880s. In 1886 he married Helen Herron. From 1887 to 1890, he served on the Ohio Superior Court; 1890–92, as solicitor general of the United States; 1892–1900, on the federal circuit court. In 1900 McKinley appointed him president of the Philippine Commission and in 1901 governor general. Taft had great success in pacifying the Filipinos, solving the problem of the church lands, improving economic conditions, and establishing limited self-government. His period as secretary of war (1904–08) further demonstrated his capacity as administrator and conciliator, and he was Roosevelt's hand-picked successor in 1908. In the election, he polled 321 electoral votes to 162 for William Jennings Bryan, who was running for the presidency for the third time. Though he carried on many of Roosevelt's policies, Taft got into increasing trouble with the progressive wing of the party and displayed mounting irritability and indecision. After his defeat in 1912, he became professor of constitutional law at Yale. In 1921 he was appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court. He died in Washington, DC, on March 8, 1930.
A landmass in the western hemisphere that consists of the continents of North and SouthAmerica joined by the Isthmus of Panama. The continent was originally inhabited by American Indians and Inuits. The northeast coastline of North America was visited by Norse seamen in the 8th or 9th century, but for the modern world the continent was first reached by Christopher Columbus in 1492. President William Howard Taft had some of the following significant accomplishments: Trust-busting
Civil service reform
Strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission
Improving the performance of the postal service
Passage of the Sixteenth Amendment. Abroad
Sought to further the economic development of undeveloped nations in Latin America and Asia through the method he termed "Dollar Diplomacy."
Bacterial Shapes and Classification
There are thousands of species of bacteria on earth, many of which have not yet been identified. When attempting to classify a bacterium, a variety of characteristics are used, including visual characteristics and laboratory tests. Bacteria are simple, unicellular organisms. Most are free-living organisms, but a few require animal or plant hosts for survival. Bacteria absorb nutrients from their environments, excrete waste products, and secrete various toxins that help them invade tissues. Bacteria have no enclosed nucleus. Their chromosomal material is in the form of a large loop, packed into the cytoplasm of the cell. Some bacteria can be identified through a simple visual perusal. First, the operator considers the appearance of the bacterial colony (a group of the same kind of bacteria growing together, often on a petri dish.) The operator also views individual bacteria under a microscope, considering their shape, groupings, and features such as the number and location of flagella. A variety of laboratory techniques can be used to narrow down the identity of a bacterial species if a visual survey is not sufficient. The operator can stain the bacteria using a gram stain or an acid-fast stain. The bacteria can be cultured on a specific medium which promotes the growth of certain species, as in the membrane filter method of testing for coliform bacteria. Other tests can detect bacterial by-products, while yet more advanced tests actually analyze the DNA of the bacteria.
The most basic method used for identifying bacteria is based on the bacterium's shape and cell arrangement. This section will explain the three morphological categories which all bacteria fall into - cocci, bacilli, and spirilla. You should keep in mind that...
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