IB History Internal Assessment
Why was Eduardo Mondlane assassinated in February 1969?
Shamil M. Aly
27th January 2012
A. Plan of Investigation
This investigation will analyze the different causes of the murder of Eduardo Mondlane in 1969. The investigation analyzes different possible reasons for this political murder. The concentrated struggle in Frelimo between 1964 and 1969 and the role of the PIDE will also be analyzed. This investigation will be supported by documented history from various books and articles. The books used are Eduardo Mondlane: Panaf Great Lives Series. Mozambique: From Colonialism to Revolution, 1900-1982 by Allen Isaacman and Barbara Isaacman will be analyzed for their origins, purposes, values and limitations. I chose this topic was chosen was because American International School of Mozambique has welcomed several Mondlane family members as speakers. These members spoke about the life of Mondlane; they focused on the reasons for his assassination. This investigation will not assess the consequences for FRELIMO of Mondlane’s murder. Word count: 138
B. Summary of Evidence
Mozambique was under Portuguese rule and this was to be challenged by Mondlane and by FRELIMO. A war started in 1964 and it was known as the guerilla war, this was intended to gain Mozambique independence from the Portuguese. Mondlane fought “not only [for] independent African states” (Mondlane 119) but also to have a better environment by leading a socialist society. He also aided many young children in different countries giving them a chance to have an education with the help of some Americans. Eduardo Mondlane was then elected to be president of FRELIMO. In 1963 FRELIMO headquarters was located outside of Mozambique; in Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. Janet Mondlane “managed to get scholarship from the US government for twelve of the students in Dar”, Janet Mondlane also helped various people and poor families and even managed to changed some of their lives (Manghezi). Janet Mondlane was American and she was very divisive. Mondlane’s qualities amazed many people from various countries, not only his qualities but his aims in changing the world and helping people in Africa live better lives. Mondlane had a very open life-style and he was also made a target for his political enemies. Various assassination attempts had been made on Mondlane. Mondlane moved from countries various times with his family in order to stay safe. Mondlane was assassinated after a successful attempt in 1969. Many suspect that his death could have included help from the PIDE which were Portuguese secret police; the reason for their involvement could have been because Mondlane was a successful leader and was slowly taking these African countries away from the Portuguese powers. “Evo Fernandes” (Isaacman 177) was one of the “workers for the colonial police while covertly in the employ of PIDE” (Isaacman 177), he was “a professional assassin” (Isaacman 177) causing people to believe that he could have been involved in the murder of Eduardo Mondlane. Also “it was thought that South African assassination experts might have had a hand in making the parcel bomb which killed FRELIMO’S first president, Eduardo Mondlane” (Birmingham 69) and this could also relate to the Apartheid time because Mondlane is expelled from South Africa while attending the Wits University. FRELIMO started its campaign in the Northern areas of Mozambique in 1964. They slowly started moving south and managed to control the whole of Mozambique in 1974. This was a 10 year process and during these 10 years the assassination of Eduardo Mondlane occurred. FRELIMO consisted of two wings, Kavandame and Si Mango. Samora Machel and other members were part of the left wing and Eduardo Mondlane was part of the Right wing. Eduardo Mondlane and Kennedy knew each other and so Mondlane...
Bibliography: * Anonymous. London: Panaf Books Ltd., 1972. Print.
* Birmingham, David. Frontline nationalism in Angola & Mozambique. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, Inc., 1992. Print.
* Henriksen Thomas. Mozambique: A History. Rex Collings London with David Philip: Cape Town; 1978. Print
* Isaacman, Allen F. and Isaacman Barbara, Mozambique: from Colonialism to Revolution, 1900-1982. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press; 1983. Print.
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