Why Are There So Many Minorities in U.S. Prisons?
By Hillary Parks
Final Draft Research PaperEnglish 122 English Composition 2
Professor Elizabeth Parks
September 15, 2014
There are a majority of minorities in the U.S. prisons because of lack of education, low or falling wages, and low parental or family guidance, parents being incarcerated as they were child and poor conditions after they have been released from jail or prison. These are the top few reasons for the large numbers of minorities in the prison population. Many have disagreed on these findings, but three researchers at Princeton University have concluded that these are the primary causes with the high population of minorities in the U.S. prisons and jails. According to Bruce Western, Meredith Kleykamp and Jake Rosenfeld during the 1920s through 1970s at least two-thirds of the population of criminals were placed in state or federal prisons for a felony conviction with a sentence of a year or maybe even longer depending on the crimes the inmates have committed. Between these years the rate in population averaged about one hundred to one hundred thousand of the U.S. population to 470 prisoners per the population of one hundred thousand in 2001. “The gap continued to grow between the rich and poor and had affected the admission rate because of the increasing crime offenses being committed among the low income men”. (Jacobs & Helms 1996)(Greenburg & Western 2001). When Western and his colleagues continued their work they found out that in 2009 the ratios for the minorities against Caucasians was sufficiently much higher than average. African-Americans were almost seven times higher than that of the Caucasian males. (4,749 African-Americans v. 708 Caucasians). The ratio of Hispanics compared to Caucasians was more than 2.5 times higher (1,822 Hispanic males v. 708 Caucasian males). The female ratios are much lower than the males but are still found in the population of minorities housed...
References: BIBLIOGRAPHY Bruce Western, M. K. (2006). Did Falling Wages and Employment Increase U.S imprisonment. social forces.
L. Marvin Overby, R. D. (2005). Race, Political Empowerment and Minority Perceptions of Judicial Fairness. social science quarterly .
Loury, G. C. (2007). Why Are So Many Americans in Prison . Race and the transformation of criminal justice .
Spohn, P. K. (2008). Race/Ethnicity and Sentencing Outcomes Among Drug Offenders in North Carolina. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice .
Vigne Nancy, D. E. (2008). Broken Bonds Understanding and Addressing the Needs of Children with Incarcerated Parents. Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.
www.nccap.org National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (2009-2014)
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