Primary socialization occurs during childhood and is when a child learns the attitudes, values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. For example if a child saw his/her mother/ father expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority group, then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority groups.
Functionalist may argue that boys and girls are socialized differently, therefore resulting in boys becoming more antisocial. There are clear gender differences when it comes to socialisation. Firstly, girls are more supervised and more strictly controlled. Secondly, boys are encouraged to take risks and to be tough and aggressive. Therefore, boys have more of an opportunity and tendency to commit crime.
Functionalist also believes that there are clear and obvious gender roles within the nuclear family. The father performs roles which show him to be more of the leader and provider, whilst the mother performs the expressive role of giving emotional support and socializing children. These roles are rooted from the birth of their children as mothers have to give birth and nurse children.
Marxist may disagree with this statement is because beyond the home a woman's freedom to deviate from social norms is also limited in a number of ways; for example, some women do not want to go out and get involved in crimes as they are in fear of getting attacked or raped by men. A young woman’s fear of being attacked by a stranger is five times greater than a young male’s. Women are also less likely to deviate from norms of respectability for fear of being labeled immoral; therefore they are less likely to commit crimes.
Marxist may also say that apart from primary socialisation males commit more crimes due to labeling which leads to self fulfilling prophecy. For example boys that wear trousers below