Why was Britain the first country to industrialize? The industrial revolution, which occurred during the hundred years after 1780, was a true european revolution. It was in England that the industrial revolution first took hold. This change, which occurred between 1750 and 1830, happened because conditions were perfect in Britain for the Industrial Revolution. Having used wood for heat instead of coal, Britain was left with large deposits of coal remaining to fuel the new ideas. Any raw supplies Britain itself did not have could be provided by its many colonies. These colonies also provided captive markets for the abundance of new goods provided by the industrial revolution.
Also, England's economy had progressed further than that of any other country in the direction of abundance. In simplest terms, fewer people had to struggle to remain alive. More people were in a position to sell a surplus of the goods they produced to an increasingly expanding market. And more people had enough money to purchase the goods that the Market offered. Also the country's small size and the fact that it was an island encouraged the development of a nation wide domestic Market that could respond to increasing demand. The absence of a system of internal tolls and tariffs meant that goods could be moved freely to a place where they could fetch the best price. The freedom of movement was assisted by the constantly improving transportation system. Also the English parliament assisted this economic growth by constructing canals and the further opening up of harbours and navigable streams.
If the domestic markets promised steady growth, foreign markets promised greater returns. Expansion was assisted by a favourable political climate; some members of the parliament were businessmen themselves; others had invested heavily in commerce; hence they were eager to encourage the construction of canals, the establishment of banks and the enclosure of common lands. And because of this,...
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