This reduces the scientists’ credibility in the eyes of government and local people, and can cause problems the next time an eruption seems likely. 7. Prediction, forecasts and reactions
- Active volcanoes all over the world are monitored using a vast array of scientific equipment. Satellites look for infrared radiation that indicates rising magma and ground instruments measure gas emissions, ground deformation and resulting earthquake activity. - Geologists use evidence from past eruptions to suggest likely eruptive scenarios and hazard maps can be constructed to indicate those areas at greatest risk. - Scientists can provide reasonably accurate forecasts of impending eruptions and people can be evacuated from areas considered to be at risk. - However, governments do not always respond to scientific predictions and disasters can result. -Scientists do not always get it right and sometimes eruptions that seem imminent never actually occur. 6. Frequency of eruptions and perception of risk
- Volcanoes that erupt virtually continuously are promoted by the local tourist industry. The treat to property, although relatively minor given the nature of the eruptions, is very real to those who witness the outpouring of molten rock. - Sometimes there are hotels and cafes on the flanks of mountains which, although they periodically get damaged during eruptions, are considered worth the risk to build and maintain. - However, for many people living close to the really dangerous destructive margin volcanoes, eruptions are very infrequent and hundreds of years may elapse between eruptions. Memories are short and people are less inclined to worry about an eruption from a volcano that has been inactive for many generations. - The frequency of eruptions therefore has a profound impact on people’s perception of the volcanic hazard. 5. Proximity to population centres
- Whilst some volcanoes are located in remote parts of the world, many are...
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