1. Deviance- the recognized violation of cultural norms.
2. Crime- the violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law. 3. Social control- attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior. 4. Criminal justice system- the organizations—police, courts, and prison officials—that respond to alleged violations of the law. 5. Labeling- the idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions. 6. Stigma- a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity. 7. White-collar crime- crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations. 8. Corporate crime- consists of the illegal actions of a corporation or people action on its behalf. 9. Hate crime- a criminal act against a person or a person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias. 10. Violent crime- crimes that direct violence or the threat of violence against others. 11. Property crime- crimes that involve theft of money or property belonging to others. 12. Victimless crime- violations of the law in which there are no obvious victims. 13. Retribution- an act of moral vengeance by which society makes the offender suffer as much as the suffering caused by the crime. 14. Rehabilitation- is a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses. 15. Community-based corrections- correctional programs operating within society at large rather than behind prison walls.
Part 2: Essay Questions
1. What social policies would be likely to be recommended by a sociologist who favored Merton’s Strain theory in order to reduce property crime by the poor? 2. What are the primary reasons U.S. crime rate is very high in global context? What steps would you recommend to try to reduce this rate?
I think that policies that would be recommended by a sociologist who favored Merton’s Strain theory in order to reduce property crime by the poor...
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