What We Know about Magnetism

Topics: Magnetic field, Earth's magnetic field, Magnet Pages: 7 (2886 words) Published: October 8, 1999
Magnatism & the Things We THINK We Know About It!

By Austin D. Ritchie

Magnatism is a wonderous natural phenomanon. Since days before scientific discoveries were even written down the world has been playing with the theories of magnatism. In these three labs we delt with some of the same ideas which have pondered over for long before any of us were around. In these conclusions we will take a look at these ideas and find out what exactly we have learned.

To understand the results of the lab we must first go over the facts about magnatism on the atomic level that we have discovered. The way magnatism works is this: magnatism is all based on the simple principle of electrons and there behavior. Electrons move around the atom in a specific path. As they do this they are also rotating on there own axis. This movement causes an attraction or repultion from the electrons that are unpaird. They are moving in two directions though causing a negative and positive charge. In the case of magnatism though we find that these elements have a lot of unpaired electrons, in the case of iron, Fe, there are four. What happens then in the case of a natural magnet the unpaired electrons line up or the magnet in a specific mannor. That is all the atoms with unpaired electrons moving in a direction which causes a certain charge are lined up on one side and all the atoms with the opposite charge move to the other side. The atoms then start to cancel each other out as they approach the center of the magnet. This all happens at the currie point where these atoms are free to move and then when cooled and the metel becomes solid the atoms can no longer move (barely) causing a "permanent" magnet (as in the diagram on the next page). This same principle can be applied to a piece of metal that has been sitting next to a magnatized piece of metel in that over the long time they are togather the very slow moving atoms in the metal situate in the same fassion also creating a magnet. Now that we know the basics lets begin with the experiments.

Part one of the lab started us on our journey. In this part we took an apparatus with wire wrapped around it put a compass in the middle of the wire wraps. The setup was arranged so that the wraps were running parallel with the

magnetic field of the earth, that is they were north-south. With this setup we were able to force a current through the coils of the apparatus by means of a 6V battery and this created a magnetic field. This is because the movement of electrons (which electrisity is) causes the presents of a magnetic field. Now that we know we have a magnetic field running around the compass we cbegan the experiment. What we did was take the magnetic field of the coils beginning with

one coil and continued until we had five. What we learned from this is that with every extra coil we placed around the compass the motion that the interaction of the two magnetic fields caused increased. These magnetic feilds being the earth's and the coils. What this means is that not only does electicity create a magnetic field but that there is a direct relationship between the amount of current and the strength of the magnetic field it creates. This leads us to the relationship: Bc µ I and then by figuring in the constant we find that we can derive our first equation Bc = k I. This can also be supported by the data we collected in the lab when we see that as the measured currents went up the amount of motion went up which mathmaticly indicates that the magnetic field strength went up.

But we don't only find this equation but we also find that as the current (or more so the magnetic field it creates) acts upon the initial magnetic field of the earth we get the motion in the compass. This leads us to the first part of our left hand rule. The left hand rule for a straight conductor says that when the lines of flux are created they repel from the north end of the compass in a...
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