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What Is The Role Of Socialism In The 19th Century

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What Is The Role Of Socialism In The 19th Century
In the nineteenth century several nations in Europe, notably Britain, established liberal oriented governments. Building on the ideas of philosophers like John Locke liberals supported free elections and basic civil rights for men, free trade, representative democracy, fair laws, and the sacredness of private property.
T he French Revolution shattered the concept of absolutism in Europe and unleashed the idea of the nation-state. Napoleon’s armies spread this concept throughout Europe. Early in the nineteenth century the major powers, led by Metternich in Austria, tried to limit nationalism in favor of restoring the “legitimate” monarch back in power. However, Greece challenged this policy and won independence from the Ottoman Empire. Later in the century both Italy and Germany unified under a single monarch.
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Socialists argued for social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy. Socialism also became associated with its opposition to capitalism. It aimed to improve the life of the working class and to make the distribution of wealth more equitable. Through the writings of the German philosopher Karl Marx socialism also came to be associated with class struggle. Karl Marx
Nineteenth century imperialists wanted the Western nations to culturally, politically and economically dominate the non-Western world, especially in the regions of Asia and Africa. Britain and France were especially active in asserting their imperialistic dominance in these regions. Anarchists believed in a society free of governmental institutions. This movement was viewed as extremist especially when it was associated with violent deeds like political assassinations. Caption: Tsar Alexander II assassinated by an

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