What is Stress, How is it Measured, The Carry-Over Effect, and Gender Differences
Abstract This paper defines stress and how the definition has changed since early stress researchers and some of the methods ways of measuring stress. The Social Readjustment Rating Scale, Daily Hassles Scale, and using an fMRI machine to look at the activity in the brain, are all different ways to measure the stress in our daily lives. This paper also talks about the Carry-Over Effect and how it affects our everyday lives and even the stages we go through in our lives. It includes a study conducted on college students and the stress that comes with school and how it can spillover into their everyday lives. The last topic this paper covers is gender differences in men and women as far as who is experiencing more stress.
What is Stress, How is it Measured, The Carry-Over Effect, and Gender Differences.
What is Stress?
Psychologists have been studying what stress is and its effects on people since the 1960’s. Stress is hard to define; it started out defined as the physiological response to harmful or threating events; today, textbooks define it as a negative emotional state due to events that are perceived as challenging or exceeding a person’s resources or ability to cope. Stressors are situations or events that we deal with that produce stress which is unavoidable in our everyday lives (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 497-518). For instance according to Mendoza and Rocha-Singh, young adult college students, age eighteen to twenty-four, would experience stressors such as academic, financial, familia, personal, and environmental domains (Pedersen 620-627). Bean and Hammer found in a study that due to the amount of stress on students because of their academic workload, fifty-five percent of students reported they have to ignore one subject to prepare for the other subject, forty-two and half students reported their stress level was moderate, and
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