1. Design bias is poor design and incongruence …show more content…
Publication bias occurs when Published studies nearly always have some degree of bias. For example, in quantitative research, studies are more likely to be published if reporting statistically significant findings. Non-publication in qualitative studies is more likely to occur because of a lack of depth when describing study methodologies and findings are not clearly presented (p. 101).
Different forms of research may be prone to different sources of error, but clearly none immune (Norris, 1997 p. 173). Research bias allows readers to critically and independently review the scientific literature and avoid treatments which are suboptimal or potentially harmful (Pannuci & Wilkins, 2010).
Nigel Norris (1997) Error, bias and validity in qualitative research, Educational Action Research, 5(1), 172-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09650799700200020
Pannucci, C. J., & Wilkins, E. G. (2010). Identifying and Avoiding Bias in Research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(2), 619–625. http://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181de24bc
Smith, J., & Noble, H. (2014). Bias in research. Evidence Based Nursing, 17(4), 100-101.