A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively . Management information systems are regarded to be a subset of the overall internal controls procedures in a business, which cover the application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures used by management accountants to solve business problems such as costing a product,service or a business-wide strategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems.
Initially in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was made manually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and with some additional statistic(s), and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. Later, data was distinguished from information, and so instead of the collection of mass of data, important and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored. Earlier, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations such as tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time, these applications became more complex and began to store increasing amount of information while also interlinking with previously separate information systems. As more and more data was stored and linked man began to analyze this information into further detail, creating entire management reports from the raw, stored data. The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were developed to provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data that would help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to): decision support systems, resource and people management applications, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), project management and database retrieval applications. An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of data in the form of information needed to carry out the management functions. In a way, it is a documented report of the activities that were planned and executed. According to Philip Kotler "A marketing information system consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers." The terms MIS and information system are often confused. Information systems include systems that are not intended for decision making. The area of study called MIS is sometimes referred to, in a restrictive sense, as information technology management. That area of study should not be confused with computer science. IT service management is a practitioner-focused discipline. MIS has also some differences with ERP which incorporates elements that are not necessarily focused on decision support. Any successful MIS must support a business's Five Year Plan or its equivalent. It must provide for reports based upon performance analysis in areas critical to that plan, with feedback loops that allow for titivation of every aspect of the business, including recruitment and training regimens. In effect, MIS must not only indicate how things are going, but why they are not going as well as planned where that is the case. These reports would include performance relative to cost centers and projects that drive profit or loss, and do so in such a way that...
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