What is Hydrocephalus?
The term hydrocephalus is derived from two words: "hydro" meaning water, and "cephalus" referring to the head.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) builds up within the ventricles (fluid-containing cavities) of the brain and may increase pressure within the head. Although hydrocephalus is often described as "water on the brain," the "water" is actually CSF, a clear fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord. CSF has three crucial functions: 1) it acts as a "shock absorber" for the brain and spinal cord; 2) it acts as a vehicle for delivering nutrients to the brain and removing waste; and 3) it flows between the cranium and spine to regulate changes in pressure within the brain. Hydrocephalus can occur at any age, but is most common in infants and adults age 60 and older. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, hydrocephalus is believed to affect approximately one in every 500 children. The majority of these cases are often diagnosed before birth, at the time of delivery, or in early childhood.
Common Causes of Hydrocephalus
Although rare, hydrocephalus can be inherited genetically or may be associated with developmental disorders, including spina bifida (congenital defect of the spine) and encephalocele (hernia of the brain). Other causes can include bleeding within the brain, brain tumors, head injuries, complications of premature birth such as hemorrhage, or diseases such as meningitis or other infections. In some cases, normal flow of CSF within the brain is blocked, resulting in fluid build-up.
Symptoms of hydrocephalus vary greatly from person to person. According to the Hydrocephalus Association, some of the most common symptoms are listed below as a reference.
Symptoms of Hydrocephalus in infants Abnormal enlargement of the head; soft spot (fontanel) is tense and bulging; scalp can appear thin; bones separated in baby's head;