* Meaning of consent: it means an act of assenting to an offer. According to section 13, "Tow or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same thing in same sense." Thus, consent involves identity of minds in respect of the subject matter of the contract. In English Law, this is called 'consensus-ad-idem'. * Effect of Absence of consent:
When there is no consent at all, the agreement is void ab-initio, i.e. it is not enforceable at the option of either party. Example: X has one Maruti car and one fiat car. He wants to sell fiat car. Y does not know that X has two cars. Y offers to buy X's Maruti car Rs 50,000. X accepts the offer thinking it to be an offer for his Fiat car. Here, there is no identity of mind in respect of the subject of the subject matter. Hence there is no consent at all and the agreement is void ab-initio. * Meaning of Free consent: It is one of the essential elements of a valid contract as it is evidenced by section 10 which provides that all agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of the parties... according to section 14, consent is said to be free when it is not caused by (a) Coercion, or (b)Undue influence, or (c) Fraud, or (d) Misrepresentation, or (e) Mistake. * Effect of Absence of free consent:
When there is consent but it is not free (i.e. when it is caused by coercion or undue influence or fraud or misrepresentation), the contract is usually voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so caused. 1. COERCION
Meaning of coercion[section 15]: It means compelling a person to enter into a contract, by use of physical force/activities forbidden by Indian penal code, OR threatens to do activities forbidden by I.P.C, OR
threatens to damages the property.
Effect of coercion: Voidable and can be canceled at the option of aggrieved party. OR A 'suicide and a 'threat to commit suicide' are not punishable but an attempt to commit suicide is punishable under the Indian penal code. X threatens to kill Y if he does not sell his house for Rs. 1,00,000 to X. Y sells his house to X and receives the payments. Here, V's consent has been obtained by coercion. Hence, this contract is voidable at the option of Y. If Y decides to avoid the contract, he will have to return Rs 1,00,000 which he had received from X. "Y" (aggrieved party) will return Rs. 1,00,000
"X" (defendant party) will return the house and any benefit from the goods. When voidable contract cannot be canceled:
When the third party become interested into a voidable contract. E.g. A obtain the car of B through coercion. Let, A sold it to "C" an innocent buyer, now B cannot get the contract canceled. When the aggrieved party ratify/confirm/affirm then contract can not be cancel. 2. UNDUE INFLUENCE:
Meaning of Undue influence[section 16(1)]: The term 'undue influence' means dominating the will of the other person to obtain an unfair advantage over the other. According to section 16(1), a contract is said to be induced by undue influence 1. where the relations subsisting between the parties are such that one of them is in a position to dominate the will of the other, and 2. the dominant party uses that position to obtain an unfair advantage over the other.
When two-partner are in relation, and one of them is dominant and other is in weaker position and dominant person takes undue-Advantage, then it is called"Undue- influence."
No presumption of domination of will
According to judicial decisions held in various cases, there is no presumption of undue influence in the following relationships: 1. Husband and wife
2. landlord and tenant
3. Creditor and debtor
Effect of undue influence [section 19A]: when consent to an agreement is caused by undue influence, the agreement is a contract voidable at the option of the party whose consent was so caused. Comparison between coercion and undue influence:
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