Comparison of politeness between English and Chinese
As the embodiment of human civilization, it is not only a kind of social phenomenon, is a language phenomenon. With the rapid development of intercultural communication research, different cultural connotation and concept of politeness in cross-cultural communication how to be polite, people pay more and more attention. Because the people of what is polite and how to be polite with a different point of view, which can often lead to communication failures and the failure, therefore, on the politeness phenomenon, especially cross-cultural communication in English and Chinese two languages embody politeness is very necessary. This article on the English and Chinese politeness phenomenon from basic theory to its manifestations to conduct a comparative study. This article attempts to review the Western verbal politeness language and cultural differences and language strategy differences in cross cultural research, to speak English and Chinese speaking people comply with each other's" Politeness Principle", to communicate with each other to provide a bit of inspiration. 1. language and cultural norms of politeness nineteen sixties, American linguist Grice puts forward the cooperative principle in verbal communication, namely: Quantity maxim, Quantity maxim, Nanner maxim, Relation Maxim and Manner maxim. He found that in the process of communication, people sometimes do not comply with the principles of communication, or even intentional violation of these principles. In view of this phenomenon, the linguist Leech imitate Grice's cooperative principle, politeness principle again on the induction and classification, which can be divided into the following guidelines: (1) Tact Maxim: to minimize the loss of another, as far as possible to increase the interests of others; (2) Generosity Maxim: to minimize their own interests, minimize their losses; (3) Approbatity Maxim: minimize the others;
(4) Modesty Maxim: to minimize their praise; increases as far as possible on their own to; (5) Agreement Maxim: to minimize the differences between and others, and others to increase between the common point; (6) Sympathy Maxim: minimize the resentment, as far as possible to increase on the sympathy of others. From the above6 criteria can be seen, tact and generosity is two respects of a problem : appropriateness is about how to treat people, applicable to the request, generous about how to treat themselves, to promise to help; praise and humility is the same problem in two aspects: praise should be how to treat others, should be praised each other but not praise, it is criticized, humility is about how to treat themselves, to be humble but not humble, is blow one's own horn; consistent and empathy is also the same problems of the two party: consistent tells is not directly expressed do not agree with each other 's view, empathy is about should pay attention to express yourself with the other common mood. Leech (1983) proposed, in the communication it is polite to have different pragmatic strategies. China is known as " a state of ceremonies " say, in the thousands of years of history of civilization formed a set of moral standards and norms of politeness. In recent years, our country related study of politeness principle has also made great progress. He Ziran Hu Wenzhong, Professor of intercultural communication has made the explanation. Mr. Gu Yueguo according to Chinese historical and cultural background and the Chinese daily communication characteristic, draw lessons from Leech6 polite principle, summarizes suits the Chinese national condition the politeness principle, including a total of five aspects. 1.1self denigration maxim: refer to their own or with related things to be "down", be" modest"; refer to the listener or audience and related things to" lift", to" respect". It is the embodiment of Chinese traditional culture in" ceremony, inferiority and respect for people", but also...
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