D

C

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Fig 1

E

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Fig 1

A projectile follows the path in Fig. 1.

At what points does it have the same speed? 19. A projectile follows the path in Fig. 1.

At what point is its horizontal speed the greatest? Point C 20. A projectile follows the path in Fig. 1.

What is the direction of acceleration at points A, B, C, D, and E? (Zero, up, down, right, left?) Point A: up Point B: Point C: down Point D:down Point E: zero 21. A projectile follows the path in Fig. 1. What is the direction of the vertical speed at point C? 22. What is implied when an object is not accelerating in the x direction?- the body is moving at a constant velocity 23. What is implied when an object is not accelerating in the y direction?- g=0 so h=(Vyo)t 24. When is sum of force (net force) zero, and when is it non-zero?-when a body is moving at a constant velocity or not moving at all. And non-zero when a body’s speed is changing. 25. What force is always present, and what is its equation?-weight. W=mg 26. How is sum of force (net force) depicted in a FBD?- it is an arrow that does not touch the body. 27. When is a normal force present, what is its direction?- when the body rests on a surface. 28. What is the component of Fg down a slope?-------------------------- 29. What is the general equation for motion down a slope and how does it change if the object is going up the slope?- x=Vo+((1/2)g)sin(angle)t^2 30. In circular motion, how is tangential velocity calculated?-2(pi)R/T circumference over period 31. What is centripetal acceleration and force?- the acceleration of an object in circular motion towards the center of rotation, and the radial force needed to create this acceleration is centripetal force. 32. Fig 2

C

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Fig 2

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What is the direction of acceleration of the object, in Fig. 2, at points A, B, C? (Zero, up, down, right, left?) 33. What is the direction of velocity of the object, in Fig. 2, at points A, B, C? (Zero, up, down, right, left?) 34. How is Fc represented in a FBD?- it is the net force pointing towards the center.

35. Mathematically what does Fc represent and how is Fc calculated?- the centripetal force is the net force. Its magnitude is calculated from F=ma where a is the centripetal force. 36. Which vectors are positive and negative in circular motion?-------------------------------- 37. What are some possibilities that can create Fc?-------------------------------- 38. What is the work done on an object moving in a circle? Why?---------------------------- 39. If you double the mass of one planet, triple the mass of another, and move them twice as far apart, what happens to the force of attraction between them?- the new force is ½ times the old force because the force of gravity varies directly with the masses and inverse squared to the distance apart. 40. What is the derived equation for the acceleration of gravity in terms of m and r2 ?- G (M:earth)/r^2 41. How can total momentum be calculated?- adding the momentum of all the bodies. 42. What is the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions? State the relevant equations for each- kinetic energy is conserved for an elastic collision and not for an inelastic collision. Elastic: m1v1+m2v2=m1v1+m2v2 Inelastic: m1v1+m2v2=(m1+m1)v 43. What is impulse, and how does it relate to both momentum and force?- impulse is the change in momentum. Impulse is (force)(time). ------------------------------------- 44. What is a key requirement in order for work to be done?- a displacement must occur. 45. Work is the area under which curve?- the graph of force vs displacement. 46. What is work energy theorem and what is its significance?- work is the change in kinetic energy. Work transfers energy to and from a body. 47. What is conservation of energy and what is its significance?- sum of all the energy forms before a condition equals the sum of all the energy forms after the condition. 48. What is the energy equation if you see a height difference between two points in the problem?- potential energy stored in gravity (PE=mgh) 49. What is the energy equation if you see a particle accelerated perpendicular to two charged plates, or the problem states that the particle is accelerated through a potential difference?- w=qV 50. What is Kinetic Energy lost and how is it calculated?- lost kinetic energy is work. It is calculated from Fd or KE:final-KE:initial. 51. What is the energy equation for the change in temperature if it results from a loss in KE?-KE=(3/2)kT where k is Boltzman’s constant. 52. What is the energy equation if a force (friction) through a distance results in heat and thus a change in temperature?- KE=work 53. What is the relationship that describes the rate that work is done, or that energy is used?- power; power equals the change in energy over time. 54. In a pendulum or spring, what are the displacement, velocity, Us and K at the equilibrium position?- displacement is zero because it is measured from equilibrium position. KE and velocity are at a maximum and it is the lowest point so PE due to gravity is at zero. 55. In a pendulum or spring, what are the displacement, velocity, Us, and K at maximum displacement?- this is the highest point of the swinging motion. PE is at a maximum. Displacement is the greatest from equilibrium. KE and velocity are at zero. 56. What do the period of pendulums and springs each depend on?- pendulums depend on the length of the arm and the pull of gravity. Springs depend on mass and the spring constant. 57. What is temperature?- degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object 58. What is internal energy?- is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of its constituent atoms, molecules 59. What is heat?- The quality of being hot; high temperature 60. What is meant by the terms system and environment?- system is the gas being studied. Environment is the surroundings outside the gas. 61. What are the two forms of the ideal gas law?- PV=nRT and PV=kT 62. What is latent heat, and why does the temperature stay the same when state changes occur?-------------- 63. What is specific heat capacity?---------------------------- 64. What is the first law of thermodynamics?- dU=Q+W 65. What is an isothermal process, and what is its impact on the first law of thermodynamics?- the PVT conditions change for a gas without changing the temperature. dU=zero. The change in temperature of the gas is zero. 66. What is an adiabatic process, and what is its impact on the first law of thermodynamics?- an adiatic process is where no thermal energy is transferred between the system and its surroundings. Q=o because thermal energy is not transferred between the system and its surroundings. 67. What is the area under any pV curve?- work done “by” the gas. 68. Under what conditions is work positive and negative?- work is positive when the force and displacement point in the same direction. Work is negative when they don’t. 69. Under what conditions is heat positive and negative?- heat, (the “Q” variable) is positive when thermal energy is being added to a system and negative when it is being removed. 70. What is the net work done by an entire process?------------------------------ 71. What is the second law of thermodynamics?- statistically speaking, energy flows from hot to cold. 72. Describe the relationship between QH, Qc, and W in a heat engine?- work of a system is equal to 1-Qc/Qh 73. What is the difference between a heat engine and a refrigerator?-------------------- 74. How can you tell when an engine is a Carnot Engine?- the engine’s efficiency is 1-Tc/Th. It is defined by the temperature’s in the reservoirs and not the thermal energy flowing from them. 75. Under what conditions does entropy increase?- entropy always increases. 76. What are 2 key differences between electric force and gravitational force?- the electric force can attract and repel and it depends on charge. Universal gravity depends on mass and always attracts. 77. In electricity, what takes the place of m and g?- “m” is replaced by “q” and “g” is replaced by “E.” w=mg is replaced by F=qE. The second formula describes the force on a charged particle in uniform electric field. 78. If you have two charges, and you double one charge and triple the other, and move them twice as far apart, what happens to the force of attraction / repulsion between them?- according to coulomb’s law, the new force is 6/4 times the old charge. 79. What is the derived equation for the electric field in terms of q and r2 ?- E=kq/r^2 this is the electric field’s magnitude at a point in space. 80. What is the difference between q and Q?- “q” is a single particle’s charge and “Q” is the sum of all the charges. 81. What do the terms: potential difference, electric potential, potential energy, and electric potential energy mean?--------------------------------------- potential difference means the change in energy of a charged particle divided by its charge. Electric potential energy means the potential energy associated with the electric force F=qE. 82. What is the potential energy of a charge in an electric field?- V=kq/R 83. Why is the potential energy of a capacitor half of the electric energy in the preceding problem------------------- 84. What are three ways to increase the capacitance of a capacitor?- C=kEA/d:increase the area of the plates, decrease the distance between the plates, and increase the dielectric constant between the plates. 85. What forces charges to move?- the electric field forces charges to move. 86. What indicates the ease with which charges can be moved?------------ 87. What do batteries and generators produce?- a potential difference and a flow and energized charges. 88. What is the actual movement of charges, and how is it measured?- the movement of charges Is the current and it Is measured by the number of charges per second at a point. 89. What causes resistance, and how does a wires composition, length, thickness, and temperature effect resistance?- resistance is caused by obstacles in the path of the flow of charges. A wire’s composition effects resistance by placing more obstacles in the path of the charge’s flow, a wire’s length effects resistance because the longer the wire, the higher the resistance. A wire’s thickness effects resistance because the thicker the wire, the lower the resistance. a wire’s temperature effects resistance because the higher the temperature the higher the resistance. 90. What are the relationships between voltage, current, resistance, and power?- Ohm’s law: V=IR and IV=P 91. What stays the same in a series circuit, and what adds?- current stays the same, and resistance adds. 92. What stays the same in a parallel circuit and what adds?---------------------- 93. What is the path of a charged particle in a magnetic field, and how is the force on the creating the path calculated?- the particle travels in a circle. Radius= momentum/qB. The force is perpendicular to the motion. This always results in a curved path. 94. What is the work done on a charged particle by the magnetic field? Why?- zero. Because the force is perpendicular to the displacement. 95. What is the force on a current carrying wire?----------------------------------- 96. What is electromagnetic induction?- electromagnetic induction is the generation of an Emf by moving a conductor through a magnetic field. Emf=change in flux/dt. 97. What is needed for electromagnetic induction to occur?- electromagnetic induction occurs when a conductor is moved through a magnetic field such that a component of the fields is perpendicular to the current’s direction. 98. What is the difference between emf and voltage? State the relevant equation.- Emf is the maximum available energy per charge at the terminal of a power source. Voltage is the actual available energy per charge at the terminals of a power source. Some energy is lost due to the source internal resistance. V=E-IR 99. How does the right hand rule work in electromagnetic induction?- it is used in lenz’s law to determine the change in flux of a conductor. 100. What is the difference between a motor and a generator?- a motor uses energy to spin the coils in a magnetic field. A generator spins the coils to create a potential difference. 101. What are the differences and similarities between transverse and longitudinal waves? Give examples of each type.- transverse waves: the displacement is perpendicular to the wave’s motion. Longitudinal waves: the displacement is in the direction of the wave’s movement. Examples, sound waves and light waves. In that order. 102. What is the relationship between speed, frequency, and wavelength?- wave speed=(wavelength)(frequency) 103. What is the relationship between energy, frequency, and wavelength in any wave?- E=hf=hc/(wavelength) 104. How are wavelength and amplitude measured on a sinusoidal wave?------------------- 105. What are the wavelengths for strings, open tubes, and closed tubes?------------------------- 106. What cause an electromagnetic wave, and what makes the wave propagate indefinitely even in a vacuum?- the interaction between oscillating electric magnetic fields that are oriented 90 degrees to each other. It propagates indefinitely because the wave takes its own medium. 107. What is the order of the electromagnetic spectrum, including the order of the color composing visible light?- radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays (like the hulk). 108. What is the difference between reflection, refraction, and diffraction?- reflection is the bouncing of waves. Refraction is the bending of waves. Diffraction bends waves around small objects and causes interference from coherent sources. 109. What is the law of reflection?- the law of reflection states that the incident angle of a wave is equal to the reflected angle. 110. What is Snell’s Law?- (n1)sin(theta1)=(n2)sin(theta2) 111. What is Fermat’s Principle?------------------ 112. What happens at the critical angle?- the refracted light ray is bent 90 degrees (parallel to the interface surface.) 113. When light goes from a less to a more dense medium what changes and how does it change?- the refracted ray changes by bending towards the normal line. 114. What doesn’t change (speed, frequency, or wavelength), when light moves from one medium to another?- frequency. 115. What conditions are necessary to change the reflected rays phase by 180o?- a reflected ray’s phase changes by 180 degrees when the ray is bounced as it tries to travel from a lower to higher index of refraction. It is also changed by 180 when it bounces off shiny surfaces. 116. What shapes are converging in lenses and in mirrors?- lenses that are fatter in the middle than on the edges. 117. What shapes are converge ng in lenses and in mirrors?- lenses that are fatter in the middle than on the edges. 118. What are the two rules for ray tracing in lenses that work all the time?- 1) straight through the vertex. 2) parallel then through the primary focus. 119. What are the three rules needed for mirrors, since not all three work every time?- (1) bounced off the vertex. (2) parallel through the focus. (3) through the focus and parallel. 120. What do you do if your forward ray traces are diverging?-------------------- 121. When are f, so, si, ho, hi, and M positive.- when the object is beyond the focus for a concave mirror. 122. When are f, so, si, ho, hi, and M negative.---------------------- 123. What is the difference between a real and virtual image, and how is each formed?------------------- 124. What is Huygen’s Principle?- every point on a wave front is a secondary source. 125. Describe Young’s experiment and state its significance.--------------provided experimental proof of the wave property of light. 126. What does the pattern look like in a Young Double Slit diffraction pattern?- dark in the middle and alternating light and dark spots after that. 127. What does the pattern look like in a single slit diffraction pattern?- broad bright spot in the middle and alternating dark and light spots to the sides. 128. What was Thompson’s discovery? Describe the apparatus and experiment.- the electron.-------------- 129. What was Milikan’s discovery? Describe the apparatus and experiment.- 130. What was Rutherford’s discovery? Describe the apparatus and experiment.- the nucleus--------------- 131. What is the Bohr Model of the atom? The Bohr Model has an atom consisting of a small, positively-charged nucleus orbited by negatively-charged electrons. 132. What is the photon energy equation?-------------------- 133. What is mass energy equivalence?- energy and mass are equated by E=mc^2 134. What does light absorption involve?- the incoming light (electromagnetic wave) has the same frequency as some of the electrons. 135. What does light emission involve?- electromagnetic wave exits the electrons to a higher orbital. When the electron relaxes, a wavelength of light is given off. 136. What is ionization energy and how does it compare to the work function?- the work function is a minimum amount of energy needed to release a photon from a collection in the surface of a material. The ionization energy is the energy needed to release an electron from a single, free floating, molecule. The ionization energy is higher than the wave function. 137. What is the photoelectric effect? Ejection of electrons from a substance by incident electromagnetic radiation, especially by visible light. 138. What is the difference between atomic number and mass number?- atomic number is the number of protons. Atomic number is the number of nucleons. 139. How do you find the number of neutrons in an atom? The atomic mass minus the atomic number. 140. What is an isotope? Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei 141. What are binding energy, total binding energy, and average binding energy?- the energy required to remove an electron or nucleon from a molecule.------------------- 142. What is the strong force?- the force that holds the nucleus together. 143. What causes radioactivity?- Too much energy within it or too little energy around it will force a radioactive reaction for the material to find a more stable state. 144. What is transmutation? The changing of one element into another by radioactive decay, nuclear bombardment 145. What are the three types of radiation? Describe each including its composition and origin.- alpha radiation caused by the release of helium nuclei, 4,2 He2+, beta radiation caused by the release of an electron and antineutrino or the release of a positron and a neutrino, and gamma decay caused by the release of an energetic photon from an overly excited molecule. 146. What is half-life, and how does 512 g of a radioactive substance change thru 10 half lives?- it is the time for ½ a substance to decay by radioactive processes. And each time it gets smaller. ½ times ½ equals ¼ the second time, and so forth. 147. What is the difference between fission and fusion? 148. How hard will you study for the AP Exam?- incredibly hard. –no life. 149. What will your score be on the test?-Low 5 or a high 4. 150. Are you in control or just along for the ride?- usually just there to learn. I try to let others lead the way and learn from their mistakes.