Western Civilizations

Topics: Futurism, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Benito Mussolini Pages: 14 (1572 words) Published: October 5, 2014

Western Civilizations
Section A

Project Topic: Futurism

Prepared By:
Bassel Paoli (12110518)

Dr. Karim Tannous

Futurism is an artistic and social movement that began in Italy Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The movement launched under the name Futurist Manifesto, written by Filippo, was published in the Italian newspaper Gazzetta dell'Emilia in Bologna on 5 February 1909, and later on in French on 20 February as Manifeste du futurisme in the newspaper Le Figaro, a well known newspaper founded in 1826 in Paris. The philosophy Filippo Tommaso Marinetti adopted was a rejection of the past and the traditional ways, and an enthusiasm towards speed, machinery, violence and industry; it was an image that bought modernization and the cultural restoration to Italy. Simultaneously other similar movements began elsewhere such as in Russia, England and other countries; since futurism once acknowledged was encountered in different areas of art in general, such as paintings, sculptures, graphics, interior designs, urban designs, fashion, movies, music, theater, architects and even literature.

Figure 1 Main political characters
Some of the main characters that influenced those movements were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Bruno Munari and Luigi Russolo, and the Russians Natalia Goncharova, Velimir Khlebnikov, David Burliuk and Vladimir Mayakovsky, as well as the Portuguese Almada Negreiros. These characters wanted liberation from the past, to glorify and modernize Italy, but with a vision where parliamentary democracy and governmental authority should not exist. The basic Futuristic movement Had many fascinating works one of which Boccioni created in 1910 “The City Rises”, which presented technology taking control of human control. In 1911, the Cubist ideas were introduced to Italy by Severini, futurists manipulated those visions and twisted them, resulting in what is called “the best Futurist work” , Boccioni’s sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space in 1913. However, on August 17, 1916, Umberto Boccioni died to injuries at the age of 33 after falling from a horse and trampled during Italian Army cavalry training. Boccioni Had a great influence on futuristic movements and with his death a major part ended, above that his death still registers as worthless to our current times since the reasons of an enormous in futurism came from an insignificant cause . Durig that era, in 1918 the Futuristic movements managed to proceed by turning the philosophy towards Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, his vision managed to attract futurists another time and to enhance that movement Marinetti created “Partito Politico Futurista”, a Futurist Political Party. A year later a famous Italian politician, journalist, and the leader of the National Fascist Party; Benito Mussolini, undertook the philosophy of futurists and combined it with other political views. That created three political parties in Italy after World War I. As a start the new party called Fasci Italiani di Combattimento did not have great influence but with two years’ time, in 1921, Mussolini had developed a powerful party which later on developed to become Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale also known as “The Blackshirts”. The Blackshirts were officially known as the Voluntary Militia for National Security, inspired by the military black uniforms of the Arditi, Italy's elite World War I troops. “The Blackshirts” were organized by Benito Mussolini as the military tool of his political movement. The initial members of the group were former army officers, young landowners and labor unions. Their methods became harsher as Mussolini's power grew, and they used violence and intimidation against Mussolini's opponents. The Organization grew for many years ending in the Italian Armistice in 1943.

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