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Welding Procedure Preparation

By mageshnvm Apr 13, 2012 21626 Words
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Welding Procedure Guide
An easy to follow guide covering the preparation of welding procedure data sheets

© Copyright 2008 CWB Group - Industry Services

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© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services Revised September 2008 All rights reserved. CWB Group 1-800-844-6790 www.cwbgroup.org

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction 2

2.0 Welding Engineering Standards

3

3.0WeldingProcedureSpecification(WPS)

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4.0WeldingProcedureDataSheet(WPDS) 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

4 6 7 8 11 13 14 16 20

BLOCK1(GeneralInformation) BLOCK2(Processinformation) BLOCK3(Jointinformation) BLOCK4(Technicaldata) BLOCK5(Jointpreparation)

BLOCK6(BaseandFillermaterial) BLOCK7(Weldingdetails) BLOCK8(Finalremarks)

5.0 Submission Of Welding Procedures

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6.0 Review And Approval Of Welding Procedures

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7.0 Sample Welding Procedure Data Sheets

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1.0

Introduction
Thisguidehasbeenpreparedtoassistweldingpersonnelwiththepreparationofweldingprocedures requiredaspartoftheircompanycertificationtoCSAStandardsW47.1,W47.2andW186.

Thefollowingthreedocumentswillbedescribed:

(a)WeldingEngineeringStandards(Note:OnlyrequiredforW47.2) (b)WeldingProcedureSpecifications c)WeldingProcedureDataSheets

Therewillbeabriefdescriptionofthefirsttwodocuments;however,thisguidewillfocusonthepreparation of welding procedure data sheets. Each item on the welding procedure data sheet will be described and guidance will be provided to complete each section.

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2.0

Welding Engineering Standards
Welding engineering standards cover the design of welded joints encountered by the fabricator and prepared primarily for the fabricator’s engineering and drafting personnel. Theweldingengineeringstandardstypicallyinclude: (a)Illustratedprofilesofeachtypicaljointintendedforuse,showing: (i)Thetypeofjoint(eg,butt,lap,tee,corner,edge); (ii)Thetypeofweld; (iii)Thegeometryofthepreparationandfit-up; (iv)Thestandardweldingsymbol; (v)Therangeofthickness;and

(b)Minimumpermissiblesizesoffilletandpartialpenetrationgroovewelds. Welding symbols shall be as shown in AWS Standard A2.4. Sample welding engineering standards are available on our website www.cwbgroup.org

3.0

WeldingProcedureSpecification(WPS)

AllcompaniesapplyingorcertifiedtoCSAStandardsW47.1,W47.2orW186arerequiredtoprepareand submitweldingprocedurespecificationstotheCWBforacceptance.

Aweldingprocedurespecification(WPS)setsbroadguidelinesfortheshopandfieldweldingpracticeof the fabricator for each anticipated combination of essential variables. Welding parameters and ranges are specifiedandusedtopreparetheassociatedweldingproceduredatasheets.

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Thecompanyshallhaveweldingprocedurespecificationsforeachweldingprocessinuse,outliningthe general welding procedure to be followed in the construction of weldments built in accordance with the governingdesignormanufacturingstandard,orboth.Weldingprocedurespecificationssubmittedfor acceptanceshouldcoverasaminimumtheitemsspecifiedinAppendixDofCSAStandardW47.1or AppendixAofCSAStandardW47.2,asapplicable.Eachweldingprocedurespecificationshallinclude applicableessentialvariables.AllweldingprocedurespecificationsshallbesubmittedtotheBureaufor acceptance and when stamped as accepted shall be considered as registered with the Bureau.

Sampleweldingprocedurespecificationsareavailableonourwebsitewww.cwbgroup.org

4.0

WeldingProcedureDataSheet(WPDS)

Aweldingproceduredatasheet(WPDS)isadocument,usedinconjunctionwithaWPS,detailingthe weldingparametersandrangesforweldingaspecificjoint,overarangeofthicknessesandweldsizes,as illustratedonthedatasheet.Thefollowingisthestandardweldingproceduredatasheetformsuggestedby theCWB,however,otherweldingproceduredatasheetformatsmaybeused.Eachitemonthedatasheet will be described and guidance on the completion of the form will be given. Common errors in completing theformwillbeidentified.

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4.1

BLOCK1(GeneralInformation)

Companynameandaddress Enter the complete company name and address in this section. If the data sheets are to be used by twoormorecertifiedplantswithinthesamecompanytheapplicableplantsneedtobeidentifiedinthe documentation submitted. WPDS No. Eachcompanyshouldhaveitsownmethodofnumberingweldingproceduredatasheets.Thiscanrange fromarelativelysimpleconsecutivenumbersystemtoonethatidentifiestheprocess,position,groovetype and electrode. Each welding procedure data sheet number should be unique so that the WPDS can be easilyreferencedonproductionschedules,workorders,shopdrawingsetc.

Date and Revision Enter the date the welding procedure data sheet was prepared and the revision number.

ReferenceStandards Someweldingstandardsthatmaybereferencedare: W47.1CertificationofCompaniesforFusionWeldingofSteel W59WeldedSteelConstruction(MetalArcWelding) W186 – Welding of Reinforcing Bars in Reinforced Concrete Construction W47.2CertificationofCompaniesforFusionWeldingofAluminum W59.2 – Welded Aluminum Construction AWSD1.1 – Structural Welding Code - Steel AWSD1.3 – Structural Welding Code – Sheet Steel AWSD1.6 – Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel

AcommoncombinationisW47.1andW59.Forcertifiedcompanies,theremustalwaysbeacertification standardstated(eg.W47.1,W47.2,W186)plusa“Construction”standard(eg.W59,W59.2,D1.3,D1.6).

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ReferenceWPS Recordtheweldingprocedurespecificationnumberthatappliestothisdatasheet. SomecommonmistakeswithBlock1: • Thecompanynameandaddressarenotcompleted. Morethanonedatasheethasthesameidentificationnumber. Noreferencecodeisspecified. Referencecodesarespecifiedthathavedifferentqualificationrulesandessentialvariables.For exampleW59andD1.3.

4.2

BLOCK2(Processinformation)

Welding Processes Theweldingprocesstobeusedshouldbespecifiedinthissection.Iftwoweldingprocessesareused toweldthejointtheycanbeeachbeenteredintheareasidentified“1”and“2”.Someofthecommon processesusedarelistedbelowwiththeircorrespondingletterdesignations:
Process ShieldedMetalArcWelding GasMetalArcWelding FluxCoredArcWelding MetalCoredArcWelding GasTungstenArcWelding Submerged Arc Welding Plasma Arc Welding Electroslag Welding Electrogas Welding Stud Welding

Letter Designation SMAW GMAW FCAW MCAW GTAW SAW PAW ESW EGW SW

Theletterdesignationmaybeusedtoidentifytheprocess. FulldetailsaboutthevariousweldingprocessescanbefoundintheCWBmodules.

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Pulsed Ifpulsedcurrentisusedcheckthisbox.Entertherootmeansquare(RMS)currentinblock7andthepeak andbackgroundcurrentintheremarkssectionofblock8.Thepulsedpowersourcebrand,modelname andtheapplicableprogramnumbershouldalsobenotedintheremarkssection(Block8). Shielding Gas type Record the complete generic composition or gas trade name as shown on the label on the gas cylinder. Use of the generic composition is advantageous as it allows the user to change brands of shielding gas with the same composition with no required changes to the WPDS. Note:Ifthetradenameisused,achangetoanotherbrandname,evenifitisofidenticalcomposition,will require revised data sheets. Thegasmanufacturer/suppliermaybeabletoprovideyouwiththegenericcomposition.Forgasmetalarc welding,thewireisclassifiedusing100%CO2;however,argon-oxygen-carbondioxidecombinationsmay beusedbasedontheoxygenequivalent. ForfulldetailsofgascombinationsrefertoCSAStandardW48. SomecommonmistakeswithBlock2: • Noweldingprocessspecified Nogascompositionspecified Gasnotcertifiedwiththefillermaterial

4.3

BLOCK3(Jointinformation)

Positions PositionsshownonthedatasheetshouldbetheproductionpositionclassifiedasFlat(F),Horizontal(H), Vertical-Up(V-U),VerticalDown(V-D)orOverhead. Numberandlettercombinationsarealsousedtodesignateeachweldingpositionforquickreference. TheletterGstandsforgrooveweld,letterFforfilletweld.Thenumbers1,2,3and4correspondtoflat, horizontal,verticalandoverheadpositionsrespectively.Fortheverticalpositionindicateiftheprogression is vertical up or vertical down.

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Inactualshopfabricationweldingcanbeinanyintermediateposition.Fordetailedinformationonthe definitionofthevariousweldingpositionspleaseconsultAppendixEofCSAStandardW59,WeldedSteel Construction(MetalArcWelding)orAWSA3.0,StandardWeldingTermsandDefinitions. Processmode(manual,semi-automatic,machineandauto) Oneofthefourprocessmodesshouldbecheckedinthissectionbasedonthefollowingdefinitions.Donot enter more than one process mode unless multiple processes are used.

Manualwelding.Weldingwiththetorch,gunorelectrodeholderheldandmanipulatedbyhand.Accessory equipment,suchaspartmotiondevicesandmanuallycontrolledfillermaterialfeedersmaybeused.An exampleisSMAWorGTAW.

Semi-automaticwelding.Manualweldingwithequipmentthatautomaticallycontrolsoneormoreofthe weldingconditions.ExamplesareFCAW,GMAW

Machinewelding(mechanizedwelding).Weldingwithequipmentthatrequiresmanualadjustmentofthe equipmentcontrolsinresponsetovisualobservationofthewelding,withthetorch,gunorelectrodeholder heldbyamechanizeddevice.SAWisanexample.

Automatic welding. Welding with equipment that requires only occasional or no observation of the welding andwithnomanualadjustmentoftheequipmentcontrols.Anexampleisaroboticapplication. Jointtype Checkthebox(s)toindicatethejointtype.Thefivebasictypesarebutt,tee,corner,lapandedge. Fordefinitionsanddetailsofjointtype,pleaseconsultCWBModule2,EngineeringDrawings,BasicJoints and Preparation for Welding.

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Penetration(complete,partial,ETT) Thedepthofpenetrationofagrooveweldneedstobeidentified. Acompletejointpenetrationgrooveweldisdefinedasoneinwhichtheweldmetalextendsthroughthe jointthickness.Thiscanbeachievedwithorwithoutbacking.Ifcompletejointpenetrationisachievedthe boxmarked“Complete”shouldbechecked.

Apartialjointpenetrationgrooveweldisoneinwhichincompletejointpenetrationexists.Ifthisisthe casetheboxmarked“Partial”shouldbecheckedandtheeffectivethroatthickness(ETT)shouldbe dimensionedinthespaceprovided.TheETTmaybespecifiedasapercentageofT,eg.ETT=0.75T. Table4-3ofCSAStandardW59showsminimumgroovedepthsforpartialjointpenetrationgroovewelds basedonthethicknessofthepartsandthegrooveangleattheroot.Verifythattheserequirementsare met.

Fillet Theboxmarked“fillet”shouldbecheckediftheweldisaweldofapproximatelytriangularcrosssection joiningtwosurfacesapproximatelyatrightanglestoeachotherinalap-joint,T-jointorcornerjoint.Joints withagrooveanglegreaterthan135degreesorlessthan30degreesrequiregreaterdetailinthesketch (definedasskewedjoints).RefertoW59Clause4.5formoredetail. Backing(materialandthickness) Backingisamaterialordeviceplacedagainstthebacksideofthejointadjacenttothejointroottosupport and shield molten weld metal.

Permanentbackingisdesignedtoremaininplaceaspartofthefinishedweld. Backingsusedfortheweldingofsteelsuptoandincluding480MPa(70ksi)minimumspecifiedtensile strength may be any of the steels listed in clauses 11.2.1 and 12.2.1 of CSA Standard W59.

W59requiresthatbackingsusedfortheweldingofsteelsofover480MPa(70ksi)minimumspecified tensile strength and shall be of the same material as the base material.

Ifsteelbackingisusedenterthematerialandthicknessofbackinginthespaceprovided

Non-permanentbackingscanbemadefrommaterialssuchasceramic,copperorflux.Iftheyareused enterthematerial,typeandformofthebackinginthespaceprovided.

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Backgouging(Yes/No,Method,Depth) Backgougingistheremovalofweldmetalandbasemetalfromtheweldrootsideofaweldedjointto facilitatecompletefusionandcompletejointpenetrationuponsubsequentweldingfromthatside.Methods includegrindingtosoundmetal(GTSM),aircarbonarcandplasma.

Backgougingshouldproduceagroovecontoursubstantiallyconformingtotheappropriateprequalified singleU-jointinClause10ofCSAStandardW59,anditsdepthshouldbeadequatetoensurecomplete penetration into the previously deposited weld metal for the welding process to be used. Ifbackgougingisused,thebackgougingboxshouldbechecked.Themethodusedandthedepth identified.

SomecommonmistakeswithBlock3: • Noweldingpositionspecified. Incorrectweldingpositionspecified.Forexample,thedrawingshowshorizontal(2For2G)butposition says“Flat”. Progression of welding not shown for Vertical. PartialjointpenetrationspecifiedwithETT=T NoETTspecifiedforpartialjointpenetration Bothfilletandpartialboxesarechecked(Completeorpartialjointpenetrationonlyapplytogroove welds)

4.4

BLOCK4(Technicaldata)

Electrode extension Theelectrodeextensionforthegasmetalarcwelding,fluxcoredarcwelding,submergedarcwelding processesisthelengthofelectrodeextendingbeyondtheendofthecontacttip.

Theelectrodeextensionforthegastungstenarcweldingandplasmaarcweldingprocessesisthelengthof electrodeextendingbeyondtheendofthecollett. Entertheelectrodeextensioninthissection.Donotleaveitblank.Iftheinformationrequesteddoesnot pertaintotheweldingprocessusedinsertN/A(NotApplicable)e.g.SMAW.

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Nozzlediameter Thegasnozzleisthedeviceattheexitendofthetorchorgunthatdirectsshieldinggasingasshielded processes.Enterthediameterofthisnozzleinthespaceprovided.Ifitdoesnotapply(eg.non-gas shieldedprocesses),enterN/A. Fluxclassification Forthesubmergedarcwelding(SAW)processthefluxclassificationorfluxtradenameshouldbeentered e.g.EM12Korthefluxtradename.Thisinformationcanbeobtainedfromthelabelonthebagofflux.Ifyou enterthefluxtradenameanddecidelatertochangethefluxthedatasheetwillneedtoberevised.The genericclassificationispreferred. Tungstenelectrodes(type,dia.) ThetungstentypeanddiameterusedshouldbespecifiedfortheGTAWprocess.Forotherprocesses enterN/A.Thechoiceofthetypeandsizeoftungstenelectrodeforaparticularapplicationdependsonthe operating current and current type. Common tungsten types are listed below. AWSCLASSIFICATION EWCe-2 EWLa-1 EWTh-1 EWTh-2 EWZr-1 EWG Cleaning procedures Enterthecleaningproceduresused.Thisisparticularlyimportantfortheweldingofaluminumalloys becauseachangeincleaningmethodisconsideredanessentialvariable.Fulldetailsofthecleaning procedureusedshouldbeincludedinthecorrespondingweldingprocedurespecification. CSA W186 Rebar splice type. ThissectionisonlyusedforweldingproceduredatasheetsforCSAStandardW186-ReinforcingBars. ThetypesidentifiedinCSAStandardW186are: • direct splice indirect splice lap splice rebar to structural member COMMONNAME 2%CeriatedTungsten 1%LanthanatedTungsten 1%ThoriatedTungsten 2%ThoriatedTungsten 1%ZirconiatedTungsten Other-NeedstobeSpecified COLOUR CODE Orange Black Yellow Red Brown Gray

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SomecommonmistakeswithBlock4: • Electrodestickoutnotspecified Incompleteornocleaningproceduresspecified

4.5

BLOCK5(Jointpreparation)

JointConfigurationandPass/Layersequence Asketchofthejointconfigurationwiththeweldingsymbolandatypicalsequenceofthelayersandpasses shouldbeincludedinthissectionoftheform.Itisrecommendedthatthesketchbedrawninthecorrect welding postion. Thejointconfigurationshouldincludethefollowinginformation: • thicknessofparts • root opening • root face • bevel angle • groove angle • depth of preparation • radius(forHSS) • diameter(forsolidbars/tubing/pipe) • effectivethroatthickness(ETT)

SomecommonmistakeswithBlock5: • Missingdetailssuchasrootfaceorland(Rf),Rootgaporopening(G),grooveangle(Θ),radius Nonpre-qualifiedmaterialthickness.Ex:0.9mmGMAWwireisnotpre-qualifiedforgrooveweldswith amaterialthicknessgreaterthan12mm.

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4.6

BLOCK6(BaseandFillermaterial)

Identificationofbasematerial(specificationandgrade,thicknessordiameter,special requirements) Obtainacopyofthemilltestcertificateoranyotherdocumentfromthematerialsupplierthatshowsthe specificationandgradeofthebasematerials.Recordthecompletematerialspecificationsandgradeson theweldingproceduredatasheets.Checkwithyourpurchasingagent.

Thefollowingaresomeexamplesofcorrectandincorrectmaterialdesignations: Incorrect 44W A572 Correct CSA Standard G40.21 Grade 300W ASTMA572Grade50 CSA Standard G30.18 Grade 400W

Gr. 400 Rebar

Notethatmanymaterials,especiallyASTMmaterials,haveagradedesignationwhichmustbeincluded. Anothercommonmethodtodesignatematerialsondatasheetsistousesteelgroupssuchas“Steelsin groups1,2and3ofTable11-1/12-1ofCSAStandardW59.Thisisadvantageousasitensuresawide range of materials are covered. Identificationoffillermaterial(process,tradename,classification,group,fillertreatment) FillermaterialclassificationscanbefoundinCSAStandardW48“FillermetalsandAlliedMaterialsfor MetalArcWelding”orAWSSpecifications: Checkthelabelonthefillermaterialboxorspooltoobtainthefullfillermaterialclassification.This informationcanalsobeverifiedonourwebsitewww.cwbgroup.org.

PleasenotethereisanewdesignationsystemforwireelectrodesanddepositsforGMAWofnonalloyand finegrainedsteelsasspecifiedinISOCAN/CSA-ISO14341. FulldetailscanbefoundinCSAStandardW48.

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ThecommonlyusedclassificationsareB-G49A2CG3(formerlyER49S-3)andB-G49A3CG6 (formerlyER49S-G). Theelectrodeorelectrode-fluxcombinationforbuttjointsusingcompletejointpenetrationgroovewelds shallbeinaccordancewithTable11.1or12.1ofCSAStandard.

Theelectrodeorelectrode-fluxcombinationfor: • completejointpenetrationgrooveweldsinjointsotherthanbuttjoints; partialjointpenetrationgroovewelds;or filletweldsmaybeoflowerorhigherstrengththanrequiredbyTable11.1or12.1,providedthatthe conditionsofTable11.2(a),11.2(b),12.2(a),or12.2(b),asapplicable,arefullysatisfied.

RememberthatonlysteelsinColumn2ofTable5-3ofCSAStandardmaybeweldedwithSMAWwith otherthanlowhydrogenelectrodesandFCAWandMCAWwithoutdiffusiblehydrogendesignators.

Thefollowingfillermaterialgroupsmaybeusedforshieldedmetalarcwelding(SMAW): Group F1 F2 F3 F4 ElectrodeClassifications

EXX22,EXX24,EXX27,EXX28 EXX12,EXX13,EXX14 EXX10,EXX11 EXX15,EXX16,EXX18,EXX48

Fillermaterialtreatmentshallbeinaccordancewithmanufacturer’srecommendationsandtherequirements of the applicable standard. SomecommonmistakeswithBlock6: • Thebasematerialisnotfullydescribed.Forexample:3XXStainlessSteel.Aprecisedescriptionmust begivenfromthereferencecodesuchasGroupAorB,Table3.1,AWSD1.6.Aprecisematerial specificationsuchas“ASTMA240,Grade304L”canalsobegiven. Thefillermaterialclassificationisincorrect. Nothicknessisspecified.

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4.7

BLOCK7(Weldingdetails)

Thickness Recordthethicknessofmaterialtobeweldedinthespaceprovided. Weldsize/ETT Theweldsizeforafilletweldoreffectivethroatforagrooveweldshouldbeenteredinthissection. Layerandpassnumber Enterthenumberofpassesandsequenceofwelding.Thereareseveralwaysavailabletodeterminethe numberoflayersandpassesforaWPDSincluding: TheNomographMethod • TheMathematicalEquationMethod • TheWeldCalculatorProgramMethod Thesemethodsrequireyoutocalculatetheareaofweldandtoselectadepositionrate.Depositionrates canbefoundinsomeweldingtextbooks,onlineorfromyourelectrodesupplier. Steelandaluminumcalculators,Weld_ITsoftware,datasheetpreparationcoursesetc.areavailablefrom the CWB to help you calculate the number of layers and passes. Details can be obtained from our website www.cwbgroup.org.

Welding Processes Enterthenumber“1”or“2”identifiedinBlock2ortheletterdesignationbelow. Welding Process ShieldedMetalArcWelding GasMetalArcWelding FluxCoredArcWelding MetalCoredArcWelding GasTungstenArcWelding Submerged Arc Welding Plasma Arc Welding Electroslag Welding Electrogas Welding Stud Welding Letter Designation SMAW GMAW FCAW MCAW GTAW SAW PAW ESW EGW SW

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Diameter ThestandardunitsofmeasurementforelectrodediameteraremminSI(metric)andinch(imperial).The followingshowscommonelectrodesizesinSI(metric)andImperialunits. INCH 0.030 0.035 0.040 0.045 1/16 5/64 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 1/4 MM 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.4 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.0

Be consistent with the selection of the choice of units. Wirefeedspeed Thestandardunitsofmeasurementforwirefeedspeedarem/mininS.I.(metric)andinches/min (imperial).

A calibrated wire feed meter is preferred for measuring wire feed speed when the actual welding is in progress.Ifaverificationoftherecordednumberisnecessaryorawirefeedmeterisnotavailable, measurethelengthofwiredischargedfromthegunforaperiodof20seconds.Multiplythelengthof dischargedwireby3togivethewirefeedspeedininches/minuteormeters/minute.Takecaretoensure that these are the real wire feed speeds and not the run in values

Current Currentvaluescanbefoundinweldingtextbooks,onlineorbycontactingyourelectrodesupplierforone oftheirproductcatalogs.Thecurrenttobeuseddependsonmanyfactorsincludingelectrodetype,size, weldingposition,jointdesign.

Measuretheamperageusingacalibratedclamptypeampmeter.Followthemetermanufacturer’s directionsandmeasuretheamperageasclosetothegun/holderaspossiblewithoutinterferingwiththe operator.Thisusuallyisabout3or4feetfromthegun/holder.Whenmeasuringvoltagedifferenttechniques can be used depending on the welding process being used.

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Voltage Whenmeasuringvoltage,differenttechniquescanbeuseddependingontheweldingprocessbeingused. FortheSMAWandGMAWprocessesthevoltagecanbetakenbetweenthecableterminalsonthewelding machine. FortheGMAWandFCAWprocesses,thevoltagecanbetakenbetweentheworkleadatthework connectionclampandtheelectrodeleadatthethecontractorinthewirefeedunit.Ifnotpractical,the voltagecanalsobetakenbetweenterminalorbetweenthecableterminalsontheweldingmachine. FortheSAWprocess,thevoltagecanbetakenbetweentheelectrodeleadconnectionatthetorchandthe workleadclamp. Warning-Weldingparametersshouldonlybemeasuredbyproperlytrainedpersonnelfollowing safeworkpractices.Followmanufacturersrecommendations. Current Polarity Enterthecurrentandpolarityfortheelectrode,electrode-gasorelectrode-fluxcombinationbeingused. Thisinformationcanbefoundinweldingtextbooks(CWBLearningCentreModule4),electrodestandards, online or from electrode catalogues or from your supplier. Directcurrentelectrodepositive(DCEP)isthearrangementofdirectcurrentweldingleadsinwhichthe electrodeisthepositivepoleandtheworkpieceisthenegativepoleoftheweldingarc.Anonstandard term for this is direct current reverse polarity. Directcurrentelectrodenegative(DCEN)isthearrangementofdirectcurrentweldingleadsinwhichthe electrodeisthenegativepoleandtheworkpieceisthepositivepoleoftheweldingarc.Anonstandard term for this is direct current straight polarity. Alternatingcurrentisthecurrentflowinanelectricalcircuit,usuallyatapre-determinedfrequency. ArcTravelSpeed/WeldingSpeed Thearctravelspeedcanbemeasuredbyrecordingthetimetakentoweldaspecificlengthofweld,then convertthemeasuredtimeandlengthtoinches/minuteormillimeters/minute.Recordthecalculatedarc travelspeed(ATS)valueandnotjustthemeasuredlengthandtime.Thiscanbedoneusingoneofthe followingformulas:

ATS(ins/min)= MeasuredWeldLengthininchesx60 MeasuredTimeinSeconds or ATS(mm/min)= MeasuredWeldLengthinmillimetersx60 MeasuredTimeinSeconds

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Burn-offrate Theburnofformeltingrateistheweightorlengthofelectrode,wire,rod,powdermeltedinaunitoftime. Record this information for arc spot welds.

Gasflowrate Theshieldinggasflowrateshouldbehighenoughtomaintainadequateshieldingforthearcbutnotso highthatitcausesturbulenceintheweldpool.Thegasflowratetobeuseddependsonanumberof factorssuchastheprocess,weldingposition,shieldinggas,electrodeextensionandoperatingparameters. WithGTAW,flowratesaretypicallyintherangeof15to20cubicfeetperhour(CFH).WithGMAW andFCAWflowratestypicallyvarybetween25and45CFHdependingonthefactorsnotedabove. Manufacturer’sliteratureshouldbeconsultedformoredetails.

Thestandardunitsofmeasurementforgasflowratearel/mininS.I.(metric)andcubicfeet/hrCFH (imperial).ToconvertfromCFHtoL/minmultiplyby0.472.ToconvertfromL/minmultiplyby2.119. CFH L/min. 15 7 20 9.5 25 12 30 14 35 16.5 40 19 45 21

Checkthegasflowratewithameterandrecordtherateandtheunitofmeasurement(inbrackets).

Heat input Entertheheatinputandtheunitofmeasurementwhentheheatinputneedstobecontrolled.Examplesare whenweldingquenchedandtemperedsteelsandwhenspecificimpactpropertiesneedtobeachieved. Heatinputistheenergysuppliedbytheweldingarctotheworkpiece.Theheatinputiscalculatedusing thefollowingformula: H= VxAx60

1000xT

where:

H=heatinput(kJ/inorkJ/mm) V=arcvoltage(volts) A=current(amps) T=travelspeed(in/minormm/min)

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SomecommonmistakeswithBlock7: • Nowirefeedspeedwithasemi-automaticprocess.(Thisisoneadjustmentthewelderneedstomake) IncorrectvoltageorwirefeedspeedparametersforGMAWsprayarctransfer.Chartsshowing parameters for spray transfer are available from the CWB Incompleterangeoffilletweldsizes Incorrectnumberofweldingpassesinflare-bevelorflare-Vjoints.Ex:8weldingpassestogetan 8mm effective throat Noflowrateentered Flowrateunitwritten“CFM”insteadof“CFH”

4.8

BLOCK8(Finalremarks)

Heattreatment(preheat,interpasstemperatures,postweldheattreatment) ForpreheatorinterpasstemperaturesrefertotheapplicabletableinthestandardsuchasTable5-3,CSA StandardW59.AlternativelyenterthevaluesinCentigradeorFahrenheit.Thisboxcannotbeleftemptyor markedasambientornotapplicable(N/A). If a post weld heat treatment is used the temperature and time should be recorded. Additionalremarks Anyadditionalremarksorrequirementsshouldbeaddedinthissection.Itcanalsobeusedfornotesif thereisinsufficientspaceinothersectionsoftheweldingproceduredatasheetform.Examplesaredetails of pulsed welding or welding techniques such as stringer or weave beads. Companyauthorization Thedevelopedweldingproceduresneedtobeacceptedbytheresponsiblepersonnelatthecompany before submission to the CWB. ForcompaniesinvolvedincertificationtoCSAStandardW47.1-Division1or2,theirweldingprocedures must indicate the acceptance by the designated welding engineer. Engineers submitting welding procedurestotheCWBmust,attheiroption,sealand/orsigneachdocument.

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WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
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ForcompaniesinvolvedincertificationtoCSAStandardW47.2-Division1,2.1or2.2,CSAStandard W186,theirweldingproceduresmustindicatetheacceptancebythedesignatedprofessionalengineer responsible for welding procedures and practice. Engineers submitting welding procedures to the CWB must,attheiroption,sealand/orsigneachdocument. ForcompaniesinvolvedincertificationtoCSAStandardW47.1-Division3orCSAStandardW47.2- Division3theirweldingproceduresmustindicatetheacceptancebyaqualifiedweldingsupervisor.Welding supervisors submitting welding procedures to the CWB must sign each document. ForDivision3companies,whentheweldingsupervisorchangesthecompany’sapprovedwelding proceduresarestillconsideredvalid.Thecompanyisnotrequiredtosubmittheexistingwelding proceduresforre-approvalorprovideanacceptanceletter.Thenewweldingsupervisoristestedonthe knowledgeandapplicationofthecompany’sweldingprocedures. WhenacompanychangesitsstatusfromDivision3toDivision1,2(W47.1)or2.1or2.2(W47.2),orwhen anengineertakesovertheresponsibilitiesforpreviouslyapprovedweldingprocedures,theengineermay, athisorherdiscretion,useoneormoreofthefollowingoptions: • prepareandsubmitforapprovalnewweldingproceduresbearinghisorhersealand/orsignature; issue a dated and signed letter to the CWB listing all welding procedures previously approved by the CWB that have been reviewed and found to be acceptable for the company’s operations. review,signand/orsealtheexistingdocumentsandresubmittheappropriatenumberofcopiesforreapproval. If the welding supervisor’s or engineer’s signature or the engineer’s seal has been removed from the document then the previous approval must also be removed. If the previous approval stamp has not been removed the documents are returned to the engineer without being reviewed. iftheengineerdoesnotsubmitanydocumentationtotheBureauregardingtheexistingprocedures, it is presumed that the engineer has reviewed the procedures and found them to be suitable for the company’sweldingoperations.TheengineerisnotrequiredtoadvisetheBureauoftheactionheor shehastaken.



WhenacompanychangesitsstatusfromDivision1or2toDivision3,thecompany’sexistingapproved weldingproceduresarestillconsideredvalid.Thecompanymaysubmittheexistingweldingproceduresfor re-approvalorprovideanacceptanceletter,althoughthisisnotarequirement. Date Thedatasheetshouldhaveanaccepteddate.

SomecommonmistakeswithBlock8: • Weldingproceduredatasheetsarenotacceptedbytheauthorizedpersonnel. • Preheatisenteredas“none”orambient. • IncorrectPreheatisspecified.

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© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

4.8

CHECKLIST:Thefollowingchecklistcanbeusedforcompletingweldingproceduredatasheets. WELDINGPROCEDUREDATASHEETITEM GeneralInformation
Company name and address WPDS No. Date and Rev
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

SMAW

GMAW

FCAW

MCAW

GTAW

SAW

ProcessInformation
Reference Standards Welding Process Pulsed current Shielding gas type X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

JointInformation
Positions Process mode Jointtype Penetration Fillet Backingmaterialandthickness Backgouging X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Technicalinformation
Electrodeextension Fluxclassification Tungstenelectrode Cleaning X X X X X X X X X X X X

Jointpreparation
Jointconfiguration/jointtype
X X X X X X

Baseandfillermaterial
Identificationtostandardorgroup Identificationoffillermaterial X X X X X X X X X X X X

Welding details
Thickness Weldsize Layers Pass No. Welding Process Diameter Wire feed speed Voltage Current,CurrentType/polarity Arc travel speed Gasflowrate + X + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X + X + X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Additionalitems
Heattreatment/preheat/interpass
X X X X X X

Additionalremarks
Companyauthorization
X X X X X X

Charpy V-notch
Reference standard Heatinput Stringer or weave bead
X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

ArcSpotwelds
Visible diameter Coatingthickness
X X X X

+ If heat input control is required
© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

Page 21

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

5.0

SubmissionOfWeldingProcedures

AcertifiedcompanyisrequiredbytheStandardtosubmitweldingproceduredatasheets,totheCWB,for the types of welded joints used by the company.

Electronic submissions of welding procedures should be sent to procedures@cwbgroup.org.

HardcopysubmissionsshouldbesenttotheProceduresDepartment,7250WestCreditAve.,Mississauga, ON L5N 5N1.

AWPDScanbeacceptedbasedonthefollowing:



Thejointgeometryandparametersarespecifiedbythegoverningstandardtobeprequalified ThecompanyhaspreviousprocedurequalificationtestdatarecordedonaPQR(procedure qualificationrecord) TherearesuccessfulproceduredatasheettestsintheCWBdatabasethatmatchtheinformationon your WPDS Bysuccessfullypassingprocedurequalificationtestsconductedinaccordancewiththerequirements of the applicable standard Bysuccessfullypassingprocedurequalificationtestsconductedinaccordancewithotherrecognized specificationsorstandards BysuccessfullypassingaspecialprocedurequalificationtestrecordedonaPQR(analternativetype test)









TherequirementsforprocedurequalificationtestingwillbeidentifiedbytheProcedureEngineerinaletter sent to the client.

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© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

6.0

ReviewAndApprovalOfWeldingProcedures

General Each submission is reviewed by a Procedure Engineer based on the requirements of the applicable standardsand/orcodes.Theapplicablestandardand/orcodemustbereferredonthedocument submitted.

TheProcedureEngineersusetheirprofessionaldiscretionwhenreviewingalldocumentstoensurethat theyarefeasibleandmeettherequirementsassetoutinthecertificationstandards.

WhenaWeldingProcedureDataSheetmeetsallprequalifiedrequirementsbutdoesnotseemfeasible soundness tests are required.

Incasesnotdirectlycoveredbythecertificationstandards,theProcedureEngineersapplythegeneral concepts of the standard combined with the requirements of other relevant standards and codes to complete the review and approval process. Welding Engineering Standards Welding Engineering Standards when required are stamped received. WeldingProcedureSpecifications Weldingprocedurespecificationsthatsatisfytherequirementsspecifiedintheapplicablestandardare stamped accepted.

Weldingprocedurespecificationssubmittedforapprovalshallinclude,asaminimum,theapplicable essential variables of the governing design or manufacturing standard. Welding Procedure Data Sheets PrequalifiedJoints:Weldingproceduredatasheets,usingjointsdesignatedasprequalifiedinthe governingstandard,canbeacceptedbytheCWBasprequalifiedwithoutfurthertestingbythecompany, providedallotherrequirementsofthegoverningstandardhavebeenmet.Examplesofgoverningstandards thatdesignatejointsasprequalifiedareCSAStandardW59andAWSCodeD1.1.
© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

Page 23

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

ApprovalusingtheCWBdatabase:Weldingproceduredatasheetsthatarenotprequalifiedinthe governingstandardcanbeacceptedbytheCWBifsufficientrelevanttestinginformationhasbeen accumulatedbytheCWB.TheCWBreviewsallsubmittedWeldingProcedureDataSheetsthatarenot prequalifiedagainsttheinformationinourdatabase.Thisdatabasecontainsprocedurequalification testscompletedbycompanies,andifsufficientinformationisfound,acceptancecanbegrantedwithout procedure testing. Welding Procedure Data Sheets that satisfy these requirements are stamped accepted on the basis of previous tests accumulated by the CWB.

NonPrequalifiedJoints-ProcedureTesting:Weldingproceduredatasheetsthatarenotprequalified inthegoverningstandardcanbeacceptedbytheBureauifrelevantprocedurequalificationtestingis completedbythecompanyandwitnessedbytheCWB.Therequirementsforprocedurequalificationtesting areidentifiedbytheProcedureEngineerinalettersenttotheclient.Weldingproceduredatasheets that are successfully tested are stamped accepted to the applicable standard on the basis of procedure qualification.

Morethanonequalificationstandard/codespecifiedontheWeldingProcedureDataSheet: If thereismorethanonestandard/code,therequirementsofallspecifiedstandards/codesmustbemet.For example:AfilletweldWeldingProcedureDataSheetwithbothCSAW47.1andAWSD1.6,willrequired3 macro-etch tests.

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© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

7.0

SampleWeldingProcedureDataSheets
WELDING PROCEDURE DATA SHEET
WPDS NO.: DATE:

CWB Form 160E/99-1

SMAW-2F-8 5/27/2008

Rev.:

0

Company Name: Address: Welding Processes: Shielding Gas Type: Positions: Process Mode: Joint Type: Penetration: Backing: Backgouging:

Canadian Welding Bureau 7250 West Credit Avenue, Mississauga, ON L5N 5N1 1 SMAW N/A Semi-Auto Tee Partial N/A Method: Depth: Corner ETT= Thickness: N/A Machine Lap Auto Edge Fillet Pulsed: Yes No

Ref. Standards: Ref. WPS:

CSA W47.1/ W59 SMAW-1
Pulsed: Yes No

2

Horizontal
Manual Butt Complete Material: Yes No

Joint Configuration & Pass/Layer Sequence

Electrode Extension: N/A Nozzle Diameter(s): Flux Classification: N/A N/A N/A Dia.:

GAP 0-1 mm
7

Tungsten Electrode: Type: Cleaning Procedures Use a

CSA W186 Rebar Splice Type: Part I II

chipping hammer and wire brush. Slag shall be removed from all finished welds and before welding over previously deposited metal. Direct Splice Indirect Splice Rebar to Structural Member Only Specification & Grade Lap Splice

3 1

6

5 42

Identification of Base Material (for CSA W186 indicate carbon equivalent, max. phosphorus & sulphur content)

E

Thickness or Dia.

Special Requirements

Identification of Filler Material Process SMAW Trade Name

PL

Steels in Groups 1, 2 and 3 of Table 11-1/ 12-1 Steels in Groups 1, 2 and 3 of Table 11-1/ 12-1

5.0 mm - 16.0 mm 5.0 mm - 16.0 mm
Group Filler Treatment

Classification

SA

Welding Parameters Thick- Weld ness ( Size/ Layer ) ETT

M

E4918

F4

Cl. 5.2.2.4, W59

Pass Number

Welding Process

Dia. ( mm )

Wire Feed Speed ( )

Current A 120-140 120-140 120-140 160-180 160-180 160-180

Volt V

Current Polarity AC/DC+ AC/DC+ AC/DC+ AC/DC+ AC/DC+ AC/DC+

Welding Speed ( )

Burn-Off Gas Flow Rate Rate ( ) ( )

Heat Input ( )

5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 16.0

1 1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-3

1 1 1-3 1-4 1-6 1-7

SMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW

3.2 3.2 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Heat treatment : Preheat min: 10°

CWB Acceptance

Company Authorization

C

Interpasstemp.max.: Interpasstemp.min.: 10° C

Remarks: Preheat in accordance with Table 5-3 of CSA W59 To be signed by the engineer or supervisor before submission to the CWB

Date:

5/27/2008

© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

Page 25

WELDINGPROCEDUREPREPARATION
®

CWB Form 160E/99-1

WELDING PROCEDURE DATA SHEET
Company Name: Address: Welding Processes: Shielding Gas Type: Positions: Process Mode: Joint Type: Penetration: Backing: Backgouging: Electrode Extension: Nozzle Diameter(s): Flux Classification:

WPDS NO.: DATE:

GMAW-2F 5/27/2008

Rev.:

0

Canadian Welding Bureau 7250 West Credit Avenue, Mississauga, ON L5N 5N1 GMAW 90%Ar/ 10% CO2 Horizontal 1 Manual Butt Complete Material: Yes No N/A Method: Depth: Tee Partial Semi-Auto Corner ETT= Thickness: Pulsed: Yes No

Ref. Standards: Ref. WPS:

CSA W47.1/ W59 GMAW-1
Pulsed: Yes No

2

Joint Configuration & Pass/Layer Sequence Machine Lap Auto Edge Fillet

GAP 0-1 mm

20 mm 16 mm N/A

Tungsten Electrode: Type: Cleaning Procedures Wire

N/A brush, clean between passes

Dia.:
3 1

CSA W186 Rebar Splice Type: Part I II

2

Direct Splice Indirect Splice Rebar to Structural Member Only Specification & Grade

Lap Splice

Identification of Base Material (for CSA W186 indicate carbon equivalent, max. phosphorus & sulphur content) Thickness or Dia. Special Requirements

Process

Trade Name

PL

Identification of Filler Material

E

ASTM A36, A516 Gr. 70 G40.21Gr. 300W, 350 W ASTM A36, A516 Gr. 70 G40.21Gr. 300W, 350 W

6-10 mm 6-10 mm
Group

N/A N/A
Filler Treatment

Classification

GMAW

N/A

B-G 49A 3 C G6 (ER49S-6)

N/A

Cl. 5.2.4.5, CSA W59

6 8 10

1 1 1 2

1 1

SA

Welding Parameters Thick- Weld ness ( Size/ Layer ) ETT

Pass Number

Dia. Wire Feed Speed Welding ( m/min ) Process ( mm )

M

Current A

Volt V

Current Polarity

GMAW

1.2

10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0

260 260 260 260

28 28 28 28

DC+ DC+ DC+ DC+

Welding Burn-Off Gas Flow Speed Rate Rate ( mm/min ) ( ) ( l/min )

Heat Input ( )

400-500

20

GMAW GMAW GMAW

1.2 1.2 1.2

300-400 400-500 400-500

20 20 20

1 2-3

Heat treatment : Preheat min: 10°

CWB Acceptance

Company Authorization

C

Interpasstemp.max.: Interpasstemp.min.:

In accordance with Table 5-3, CSA Standard W59

250° C 10° C To be signed by the engineer or supervisor before submission to the CWB

Date:

5/27/2008

Page 26

© Copyright CWB Group - Industry Services

COMPANY NAME:

__ ________________

COMPANY ADDRESS:_ __________ WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL SPECIFICATION No.: ____ Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of stainless steel, which are fabricated in accordance with CSA W47.1 and AWS D1.6. The attached data sheets form an essential part of this specification. CSA Standard W59 may be referenced when joining stainless steel to carbon steel. A change in any of the essential variables contained in the succeeding paragraphs or detailed on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) will require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure

The welding shall be done using the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process. Joints shall be made by single or multiple pass welding, from one or both sides, as indicated on the accepted Welding Procedure Data sheets referring to this specification.

SA

M
CWB

Base Metal

The base metals used shall conform to ASTM austenitic stainless steel specifications as noted on the Welding Procedure Data Sheets welded to each other or to carbon steels conforming to the specifications of steel groups 1,2 and 3 as per table 11-1 or table 12-1 of CSA W59 . Other grades of stainless steel and carbon steel may be welded provided accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets are available.

PL
X

Base Metal Thickness

Base metal from 2.0 mm (1/16 in.) to unlimited thickness may be welded under this specification provided that the Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Thicknesses less than 2.0 mm(1/16 in.) may be welded providing data sheets have been accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

X This space to be stamped by P. Eng. if Div. 1 or Div. 2 company. Welding Supervisor's Signature if Div. 3 company.

E

ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR

- 2 Filler Metal Filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to the requirements of CSA Standard W48-01. The choice of filler metal shall be in accordance with the following table or as shown on the CWB accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Base Metal 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316 316H 316L 317 321 321H 347 347H 348 348H

304 304H 305 304L

308

308

308 309 308 309 308 309 309

308 309 308 309 308 309 309

308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310 309 310 310

308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310 309S 310S 310

308 316 308 316 308 316 309 316 309 316 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316

308 316 308L 316L 308 316 309 316 309S 316L 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316

308 316 317 308 316 317 308 316 317 309 316 309 316 310 310Mo 317 310Mo 317 316 317 317 317

308

308

304L

308

308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 321

308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 308L 347

SA
308 309S

308

309 309S 310

M
310S

PL
316L

310S 316H 316 316L 317

E

321 321H

Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes All electrodes shall be delivered in sealed containers that do not show evidence of damage.

All electrodes shall be stored in warm and dry conditions and kept free from oil, grease and other deleterious matter once they have bee removed from their containers. If reconditioning of electrodes is necessary, the electrode manufacturer’s guidelines should be followed. Electrodes that have been wet shall be discarded. Position

- 3 The welding shall preferably be done in the flat position. The horizontal, vertical and overhead positions may be used provided accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets referring to those positions and the Welding Procedure Specification are followed. Preheat Preheat does not normally apply to the welding of austenitic stainless steel, but if required, details will be shown on the specific Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Electrical Characteristics Welding equipment will be used having a dropping voltage characteristic. The welding current specified will be direct current electrode positive or alternating current. MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS This table shows the recommended parameters for all electrodes to be covered by this specification. Electrode Classification

Welding Technique

Refer to the Welding Procedure Data Sheet for the precise SMAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters. The arc is initiated by quickly touching the tip of the electrode to the base metal and then quickly drawing the tip away. Once the arc is established it should be kept short to ensure sufficient shielding by the molten slag, but the electrode should not be allowed to touch the molten weld pool. Stringer beads are preferred over weaving to limit the heat input per pass. Weaving may be used for welds in the vertical position, limiting the weave width to 2.5 times the electrode diameter. A whipping technique should not be used. All craters shall be filled at the end of each pass prior to breaking the arc. Weld metal shall be thoroughly cleaned of slag and other debris prior to depositing the next pass.

Preparation of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by shear or plasma arc cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld.

SA
Electrode Diameter

Position

Amperage

Polarity

Voltage

M PL E

- 4 All moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Contact with lead, zinc, or lead or zinc compound shall be avoided due to the potential for hot cracking. All surfaces to be welded shall be wire brushed prior to welding. In multi-pass welds the weld bead shall be wire brushed between passes. The brushes shall be of stainless steel and be kept exclusively for use on stainless steel and be kept clean and free of contaminants. All other equipment such as grinding discs shall be kept exclusively for use on stainless steels. Back gouging of welds shall produce a groove having a profile and a depth adequate to ensure fusion with the adjacent base metal and penetration into the root of the previously deposited weld metals. Weld Quality Cracks or blowholes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and groove welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable weld profiles specified in Clause 5.11 of AWS D 1.6. All welds shall be free of cracks.

The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface. Undercut shall be limited to that described in Clauses 6.28 and 6.29 of AWS D 1.6. All welds shall be free from overlap. In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 6.28 and 6.29 of AWS D 1.6 standard. Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. After the final pass all slag and weld spatter shall be removed. Arc strikes shall be removed by grinding or other suitable means. Cracks or blemishes caused by arc strike shall be ground to a smooth contour and examined visually to assure complete removal. Treatment of Underside of Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged to sound metal unless otherwise specified on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet, accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

Essential Variables The variables listed in Table 4.1 of AWS D1.6 are considered, as essential variables .Any of the essential variable changes listed in Table 4.1 require requalification of the Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Welding Procedure Data Sheets

SA

M

PL

E

- 5 The attached Welding Procedure Data Sheets form part of this specification.

SA M PL E

COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS:

. .

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
SPECIFICATION No.: Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of steel structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standards W47.1 and W59, latest revisions. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in succeeding paragraphs or detailed on applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure .

The welding shall be done by the Submerged-Arc Process using either automatic or semi-automatic equipment, with single or multiple arcs as indicated on the Welding Data Sheets. Joints shall be made following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA Standard W59, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

SA

M

Base Metal

The base metal shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, 3 as per Table 11.1 or Table 12.1 of CSA Standard W59. Other groups may be welded providing Welding Procedure Data Sheets are accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Base Metal Thickness

Base metal thicknesses from 3 mm (1/8") to UNLIMITED THICKNESS inclusive may be welded under this specification providing the respective Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted for the appropriate weld size.

CWB Acceptance

PL

E

Engineer or Supervisor Acceptance

- 2 Filler Metal/Flux The electrode and flux to be used in combination shall conform to the requirements of CSA Standard W48. Any combination of electrodes and fluxes not certified by the CWB shall be subject to procedure qualification. Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes/Fluxes Electrodes shall be stored in suitable conditions that will keep them dry and free from surface rust and foreign material. Flux used for submerged arc welding shall be dry and free from contamination of dirt, mill scale or other foreign material. All flux shall be purchased in packages capable of being stored under normal conditions for at least 6 months without such storage affecting its welding characteristics or weld metal properties. Flux from damaged packages that have been exposed to free moisture shall be discarded or shall be dried before use in shallow layers (2 inches maximum) at minimum temperature of 500oF for at least 1 hour or at time and temperature conditions as recommended by the manufacturer. Flux fused in welding shall not be reused.

SA

Position

The welding shall be done only in the position indicated on the Welding Data Sheet. Preheat

The minimum preheat before welding will comply with Table 5.3 of CSA Standard W59. Minimum preheat to be maintained or exceeded during welding. If welding is interrupted for some time so that the temperature of the base metal falls below the minimum preheat temperature, then arrangements will be made to preheat again prior to recommencing welding. The weldment shall be allowed to cool to the ambient temperature, without external quench media being supplied. In other words, do not cool using water or by immediate placement in frigid conditions which will cause a quick temperature change.

Heat Treatment and Stress Relieving

This will not be applicable to structures welded under this specification, unless a specific Data Sheet showing all the parameters is submitted to the Canadian Welding Bureau and acceptance is obtained. Electrical Characteristics The current used shall be either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) as indicated on the Welding Data Sheets. Welding Technique The correct amperage and voltage, speed of travel, thickness of layers, number of passes, position, material electrodes and any special instructions will be as per Data Sheet.

M

PL

E

- 3 Preparation Of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by oxy-acetylene machine cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects that will adversely affect the quality of the weld. All loose or thick scale, rust, moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Quality Cracks or blow holes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and butt welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable fillet weld profiles shown in Figure 5.4 of CSA Standard W59. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 11.5.4/12.5.4 of CSA Standard W59. Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. Prior to painting, etc., all slag shall be removed and the parts shall be free of loose scale, oil and dirt. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove

Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

SA

M

PL

E

COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS:

. .

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING SPECIFICATION No.: Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of steel structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standards W47.1 and W59, latest revisions. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in succeeding paragraphs or detailed on applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure .

The welding shall be done manually using the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) process. Joints shall be made following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA Standard W59, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

SA

M

Base Metal

The base metal shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, 3 as per Table 11.1 or Table 12.1 of CSA Standard W59. Other groups may be welded providing Welding Procedure Data Sheets are accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Base Metal Thickness

Base metal thicknesses from 3 mm (1/8") to UNLIMITED THICKNESS inclusive may be welded under this specification providing the respective Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted for the appropriate weld size.

CWB Acceptance

PL

E

Engineer or Supervisor Acceptance

- 2 Filler Metal The filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to CSA Standard W48. Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Basic Electrodes The storage and conditioning of electrodes shall be as per CSA Standard W59. All basic electrodes shall be delivered in hermetically sealed containers that do not show evidence of damage. However, if such containers show evidence of damage, the electrodes shall be reconditioned in accordance with the requirements of CSA Standard W59. Immediately after being removed from hermetically sealed containers or from reconditioning ovens, electrodes shall be stored in ovens held at a temperature of at least 120°C (250°F). Basic electrodes of E49XX classification that are not used within 4 hours after removal from ovens shall be reconditioned in accordance with the requirements of CSA Standard W59. Basic electrodes shall be re-dried no more than once. Electrodes that have been wet shall be discarded. Other Than Basic Electrodes

All other than basic electrodes shall be stored in warm and dry conditions and kept free from oil, grease, and other deleterious matter once they have been removed from their containers and packages. Electrodes that have been wet shall be discarded. Position

The welding shall be done preferably in the flat position, but other positions such as horizontal, vertical and overhead are permissible providing the proper Data Sheets are supplied and approved. Preheat The minimum preheat before welding will comply with Table 5.3 of CSA Standard W59. Minimum preheat to be maintained or exceeded during welding. If welding is interrupted for some time so that the temperature of the base metal falls below the minimum preheat temperature, then arrangements will be made to preheat again prior to recommencing welding. The weldment shall be allowed to cool to the ambient temperature, without external quench media being supplied. In other words, do not cool using water or by immediate placement in frigid conditions which will cause a quick temperature change.

SA

M

PL

E

- 3 Heat Treatment and Stress Relieving This will not be applicable to structures welded under this specification, unless a specific Data Sheet showing all the parameters is submitted to the Canadian Welding Bureau and acceptance is obtained. Electrical Characteristics Welding equipment will be used having a drooping voltage characteristic. The welding current specified will be direct current (straight or reverse polarity) or alternating current. The current range will be as per electrode manufacturer's instructions and will shown on the Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Welding Technique The correct amperage and voltage, speed of travel, thickness of layers, number of passes, position, material electrodes and any special instructions will be as per Data Sheet. Arc strikes outside of the area of welds should be avoided on any material. Preparation Of Base Material

The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by oxy-acetylene machine cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects that will adversely affect the quality of the weld. All loose or thick scale, rust, moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed.

SA

M

PL

Quality

Cracks or blow holes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and butt welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable fillet weld profiles shown in Figure 5.4 of CSA Standard W59. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 11.5.4/12.5.4 of CSA Standard W59.

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Weld Metal Cleaning Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. Prior to painting, etc., all slag shall be removed and the parts shall be free of loose scale, oil and dirt. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

COMPANY NAME: _________________________________________ COMPANY ADDRESS:______________________________________ W47.1/AWS D1.6 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL SPECIFICATION No.:__________________ Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of stainless steel, which are fabricated in accordance with CSA Standard W47.1 and AWS D1.6. The attached data sheets form an essential part of this specification. CSA Standard W 59 may be referenced when joining stainless steels to carbon steels. A change in any of the essential variables contained in the succeeding paragraphs or detailed on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet will require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Welding Process

The welding shall be done using the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process. Joints shall be made by single or multiple pass welding, from one or both sides, as indicated on the approved Welding Procedure Data sheets referring to this specification.

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Base Metal

The base metals used shall conform to ASTM austenitic stainless steel specification as noted on the Welding Procedure Data Sheets welded to each other or to carbon steels conforming to the specifications of steel groups 1,2 and 3 as per table 11-1 or table 12-1 of CSA W59. Other grades of stainless steel and carbon steel may be welded provided accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets are available

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Base Metal Thickness

Base metal from 2.0 mm(1/16 in.) to unlimited thickness may be welded under this specification provided that the Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and approved by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Thicknesses less than 2.0 (1/16 in.) mm may be welded providing data sheets have been approved by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

X This space to be stamped by P. Eng. if Div. 1 or Div. 2 company. Welding Supervisor's Signature if Div. 3 company.

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ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR

- 2 Filler Metal Tungsten electrodes conforming to AWS classification shall be used. The filler metal meeting the requirements of the latest addition of AWS A 5.9 classification shall be selected to weld base material on the basis of matching chemical analysis as nearly as possible. Filler metal shall be stored in a dry, clean place adequately protected from the weather or environment hazards until actually needed. The storage area temperature shall be maintained at a uniform temperature approximately the same as that of the welding location. The choice of filler metal shall be in accordance with the following table or as shown on the CWB accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Base Metal 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316 316H 316L 317 321 321H 347 347H 348 348H

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308 308 309 308 309 308 309 309 308 309 308 309 308 309 309 309S 308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310 309 310 310 308 308

304 304H 305 304L

308

308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310

308 316 308 316 308 316 309 316 309 316

308 316 308L 316L 308 316 309 316

308 316 317 308 316 317 308 316 317 309 316 309 316 310 310Mo 317 310Mo 317 316 317 317 317

308

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308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 321

308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 308L 347

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309S 316L 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316 316L

309 309S 310

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310S 316H 316 316L 317

321 321H

Shielding Gas

- 3 The shielding gas shall be welding grade argon, helium, or an argon-helium mixture and shall be limited to those specified on the fabricator's approved Welding Procedure Data Sheets. The welding gases shall have a dew point of -40° Celsius, or lower, at 101 kPa. The gas distribution system shall be free from leaks to prevent air or other contaminants from entering. The containers or storage systems should not be used when the pressure falls below 2000 kPa (290 psi). * Position The welding shall preferably be done in the flat position. The horizontal, vertical and overhead positions may be used provided approved Welding Procedure Data Sheets referring to those positions and the Welding Procedure Specification are followed. Preheat Preheat does not normally apply to the welding of austenitic stainless steel, but if required, details will be shown on the specific data sheet(s). Electrical Characteristics The welding shall be done using a DC power source with drooping volt-ampere characteristics on straight polarity. MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS This table shows the recommended parameters for all electrodes to be covered by this specification.

Shielding Gas

Welding Technique Refer to the Welding Procedure Data Sheet for the precise GTAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow rate, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the torch angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator. Before welding is started, electrode size, current setting and gas flow should be selected to suit the material thickness and welding position being used from an approved data sheet.

Preparation of Material

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Electrode Classification

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Amperage

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voltage

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- 4 The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by shear or plasma arc cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld. All moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Contact with lead, zinc, or lead or zinc compound shall be avoided due to the potential for hot cracking. All surfaces to be welded shall be wire brushed prior to welding. In multi-pass welds the weld bead shall be wire brushed between passes. The brushes shall be of stainless steel and be kept exclusively for use on stainless steel and be kept clean and free of contaminants. All other equipment such as grinding discs shall be kept exclusively for use on stainless steels. Back gouging of welds shall produce a groove having a profile and a depth adequate to ensure fusion with the adjacent base metal and penetration into the root of the previously deposited weld metals. Weld Quality

Cracks or blowholes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and groove welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable weld profiles shown in Clause 5.11 of AWS D1.6. All welds shall be free of cracks.

The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface. Undercut shall be limited to that described in Clauses 6.29 and 6.29 of AWS D1.6. All welds shall be free from overlap. In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 6.28 and 6.29 of AWS D1.6. Essential Variables The variables listed in Table 4.1 of AWS D1.6 are considered, as essential variables .Any of the essential variable changes listed in Table 4.1 require requalification of the Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Welding Procedure Data Sheets The attached Welding Procedure Data Sheets form part of this specification.

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COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS:

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING OF ARC SPOT WELDS SPECIFICATION No.: Scope This welding procedure specification covers arc spot welding and related operations for attaching sheet steel to structural steel in accordance with the latest editions of CSA Standards W47.1 and W59, and AWS D1.3. "Structural Welding Code - Sheet Steel". Welding Procedures Welding shall be done manually using the SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) process.

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Base Metal

Supporting steel shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, and 3 of table 11-1 of CSA W59. Galvanized sheet steel shall conform to ASTM A446 or CSSBI 101M. Base Metal Thickness

Sheet material from Ga to Ga and supporting steel from 3 mm (1/8") to mm ( ") may be welded under this specification. The thickness of a single sheet or the combined thickness of multiple sheets welded to a supporting member shall not exceed 3.7 mm (0.15"). Welding procedure data sheets showing thicknesses of material will be supplied to and accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

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Filler Metal

The filler metal shall be classified as EXXXX. The filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to CSA Standard W48.

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ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR

X This space to be stamped by P. Eng. if Div. 1 or Div. 2 company. Welding Supervisor's Signature if Div. 3 company.

-2Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Basic Electrodes All basic electrodes shall be delivered in hermetically sealed containers that do not show evidence of damage. However, if such containers show evidence of damage, the electrodes shall be dried for at least 1 hour at a temperature between 370C (700F) and 430C (800F) before being used or otherwise treated as non-basic electrodes. Immediately after being removed from hermetically sealed containers or from drying ovens, electrodes shall be stored in ovens held at a temperature of at least 120C (250F). Basic electrodes of E49XX (E70XX) classification that are not used within 4 hours after removal from ovens shall be reconditioned in accordance with the requirements of Clause 5.2.2.4.1. of CSA W59. Basic electrodes shall be redried no more than once. Other Than Basic Electrodes

All other than basic electrodes shall be stored in warm and dry conditions and kept free from oil, grease, and other deleterious matter once they have been removed from their containers and packages. Electrodes that have been wet shall be discarded. Position

Welding shall be done in the positions indicated on the approved Welding Procedure Data Sheet.

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Preheat

Preheat is not normally required when arc spot welding sheet steel to thicker supporting members. Reference Clause 5.2.2.3. and Appendix K of CSA W59.

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Electrical Characteristics

Welding current will be direct or alternating. The current range and polarity will be as shown on the approved data sheets. Essential Variables A change in the following variables shall be considered essential changes and shall required establishing a new procedure by qualification (Clause 4.5 of AWS D1.3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A change in the classification of electrode. A change in the size of electrode. A change increasing the filler metal strength level. A change in the type of current or polarity. An increase of more than 10% in the melting rate or amperage from both that used in the procedure qualification test.

-36. An decrease of more than 5% in the melting rate or amperage from both that used in the procedure qualification test. 7. A change in thickness of sheet steel by more than 10%. 8. A change in the type of coating material on the sheet steel. 9. An increase exceeding 30% in the thickness of coating of the sheet steel. 10. A change from a single layer to a double layer of sheet steel or vice versa. 11. A change in the welding position. Welding Technique The electrode should be at right angles to the decking. The arc is struck and a short arc maintained. A spiral motion is used increasing in size until the required weld size is attained, the electrode is then drawn back to the centre of the weld and the arc is broken off. Preparation Of Base Material Surfaces to be welded shall be dry, clean and free from loose scale, oil or grease. The decking shall be fitted tightly to the supporting member before welding begins. A chalk line will be used to locate welds over the supporting member. Spacing of the welds will be as shown on the design or erection drawings. Welding will not be carried out when the ambient temperature is less than -18C (0F) or when surfaces are exposed to rain, snow or high winds.

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Quality

The welds will be circular, and have a minimum nugget diameter of 13 mm (1/2"). At least 87.5% of the circumference will be fully fused to the supporting member as per AWS D1.3. The welds will be filled to a slightly convex contour. Burn through of supporting members is not permitted. If this does occur, it shall be reported to the responsible engineer and repairs will be made under his/her direction to ensure joint integrity. Welds shall be uniform in appearance and shall be free of overlap, cracks, porosity and excessive undercut. Weld washers shall be used to prevent burn back for sheet steels thinner than 0.7 mm (0.028"). Separate procedure qualification tests will be required for arc spot welds using weld washers. Weld Metal Cleaning All slag remaining shall be removed from the finished welds. For galvanized decking a coat of zinc rich primer shall be applied to the finished weld.

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-4Welder Qualifications Welders will be qualified under clause 4 of AWS D1.3. The welding procedure used in the qualification shall be a qualified welding procedure. The following is an outline of the limitations of welder qualification which should only be used together with AWS D1.3. Base Metal Qualification to any one of the steels covered by this procedure specification shall be considered qualification to weld any other sheet steels covered by this procedure specification, providing that they have no coating or have the same coating used in the qualification. Separate qualification is required for galvanized sheet steel. Base Metal Thickness For arc spot welding, the welder shall qualify separately for each thickness (gauge) of sheet steel to be used. Electrodes

A welder qualified to weld with an electrode in the following table shall be considered qualified for any electrode in the same group, and any electrode listed in a numerically lower group.

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GROUP F4 F3 F2
Type of: Joint Arc spot weld, sheet to supporting member Position F F

ELECTRODE CLASSIFICATIONS EXX15, EXX16, EXX18 EXX10, EXX11 EXX12, EXX13, EXX14

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Qualifies For: Position

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Joint Arc spot weld and arc seam weld, sheet to supporting member Thickness Thickness tested Number of Tests 2 Type of Test Twist

Position

The welder shall be qualified separately for each position of welding. Welder Tests Required

The following table describes the welder test requirements.

TABLE 1 WELDER QUALIFICATION TEST Test Assembly See Figure 1

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Test Results Required

The sheet steel shall be struck with a hammer until the steel around the weld separates, due to failure in the weld or in the steel. The nugget diameter shall be measured to ensure that it meets the minimum required diameter (13 mm (1/2")). The melting rate for the electrode used shall be measured. The test shall then be repeated for a total of two successful tests.

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Figure 1.

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- 1 COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS: .

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR GAS METAL ARC WELDING
SPECIFICATION No.: GMAW-1 Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of steel structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standards W47.1 and W59, latest revisions. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in succeeding paragraphs or detailed on applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure .

The welding shall be done semi-automatically using the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) process. Joints shall be made following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA Standard W59, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

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Base Metal

The base metal shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, 3 as per Table 11.1 or Table 12.1 of CSA Standard W59. Other groups may be welded providing Welding Procedure Data Sheets are accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

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Base Metal Thickness

Base metal thicknesses from 3mm (1/8") to UNLIMITED THICKNESS inclusive may be welded under this specification providing the respective Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted for the appropriate weld size.

CWB Acceptance

Engineer or Supervisor Acceptance

- 2 Filler Metal The filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to CSA Standard W48. Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Electrodes shall be dry and free from surface rust and foreign material. Shielding Gas The shielding gas shall be a welding grade having a dew point of -40oC (-40oF) or lower. The shielding gas/electrode combination shall be as shown on the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets. Welding shall not be done in a draught or wind unless the weld is protected by a shelter. This shelter shall be of material and shape appropriate to reduce wind velocity in the vicinity of the weld to 8 km/hr. (5 mph).

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Position

The welding shall be done preferably in the flat position, but other positions such as horizontal, vertical and overhead are permissible providing the proper Data Sheets are supplied and approved. Preheat

The minimum preheat before welding will comply with Table 5.3 of CSA Standard W59. Minimum preheat to be maintained or exceeded during welding. If welding is interrupted for some time so that the temperature of the base metal falls below the minimum preheat temperature, then arrangements will be made to preheat again prior to recommencing welding. The weldment shall be allowed to cool to the ambient temperature, without external quench media being supplied. In other words, do not cool using water or by immediate placement in frigid conditions which will cause a quick temperature change.

Heat Treatment and Stress Relieving

This will not be applicable to structures welded under this specification, unless a specific Data Sheet showing all the parameters is submitted to the Canadian Welding Bureau and acceptance is obtained. Electrical Characteristics The welding current shall be direct current (reverse polarity) using a constant voltage type power supply. The range of parameters will be as per electrode manufacturer's instructions and will shown on the Welding Procedure Data Sheet.

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- 3 Welding Technique Refer to the Data Sheet for the precise GMAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow rate, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the torch angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator. Generally, the forehand technique provides better visibility of the weld joint and a flatter weld puddle. The backhand technique yields better penetration. Torch angle is usually maintained with 10 to 20 degrees on either side of vertical. Preparation Of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by oxy-acetylene machine cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld. All loose or thick scale, rust, moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Quality

Cracks or blow holes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and butt welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable fillet weld profiles shown in Figure 5.4 of CSA Standard W59. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 11.5.4/12.5.4 of CSA Standard W59.

Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. Prior to painting, etc., all slag shall be removed and the parts shall be free of loose scale, oil and dirt. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

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COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS:

. . W47.2/W59.2

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR GAS METAL ARC WELDING OF ALUMINUM SPECIFICATION No.:__________ Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of aluminium structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standard W47.2 and W59.2. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in the succeeding paragraphs or detailed on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new (or revised) Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new (or revised) Data Sheet. Welding Procedure

The welding shall be done semi-automatically using the G.M.A.W. (Gas Metal Arc Welding) process. Joints shall be made by following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA W59.2, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the approved Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

Base Material

The base metal alloys used should conform to the materials listed in Table 5 of CSA Standard W59.2. Other alloys may be welded provided the appropriate Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been approved.

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X X

This space to be stamped by P. Eng. if Div. 1 or Div. 2 company. Welding Supervisor's Signature if Div. 3 company.

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ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR

-2Base Material Thickness Base metal thicknesses from 3.0 mm (1/8") to unlimited thickness may be welded under this specification provided that the Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and approved by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Other thicknesses (t < 3 mm) may be welded providing the above condition is met. Filler Material The filler metal shall be certified by the Bureau as conforming to the requirements of ANSI/AWS Standard A5.10. The choice of filler metal shall be in accordance with Table 3 (W59.2), unless otherwise approved by the engineer. * Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Filler metal shall be stored in the original package in a dry, clean, heated place adequately protected from the weather or environment hazards until actually needed at the fabrication site. The storage area temperature shall be maintained at a uniform temperature approximately the same as that of the welding location.* Precautions shall be taken to ensure that all opened packages of spools of electrode wire are protected from the weather or other contaminants. Filler metals that are contaminated with foreign matter shall not be used.*

Shielding Gas

The shielding gas shall be welding grade argon, helium, or an argon-helium mixture and shall be limited to those specified on the approved welding procedure data sheets. No additions of other gases shall be acceptable. The welding gases shall have a dew point of - 40 C, or lower, at 15 MPa.* Shielding gases shall be stored in and used from the containers in which they are supplied or from a central storage tank distribution system which is replenished by the gas supplier. No gas shall be transferred from one tank to another in the plant.* The distribution system shall be free from leaks to prevent air or other contaminants from entering. The containers or storage systems should not be used when the pressure falls below 2000 kPa (290 psi).* Welding Position The welding shall be done preferably in the flat position. The horizontal, vertical and overhead positions may be used provided approved Welding Procedure Data Sheets referring to those positions and the Welding Procedure Specification are followed.

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-3Preheat/Heat Treatable Alloys Preheat is not normally required when fusion welding aluminium; however, when welding thick aluminium sections, preheating is sometimes used to avoid cold-start defects to achieve heat balance between dissimilar thickness or to remove moisture. Care shall be taken to ensure temperature control, particularly, when fabricating the heat treatable alloys and the 5XXX series alloys that contain more than 3% magnesium. Preheating temperatures for these types of alloy shall not exceed 120 Celsius. Holding time at this temperature shall not exceed 15 minutes. When welding heat treatable alloys and 5XXX alloys containing more than 3% magnesium, the interpass temperature shall be allowed to fall below 150 Celsius before starting the next pass.* Electrical Characteristics The welding current shall be direct current reverse polarity using a constant voltage type power supply.

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Electrode Classification Weld Position

MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS
Diameter Amperage Voltage Wire Feed Speed

Shielding Gas

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Welding Technique For groove welding, the gun is angled from 10 to 15 to produce a forehand angle.

Refer to the Data sheet for the precise GMAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the welding gun angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator.

-4When GMA welding aluminum, the gun must never be dragged (have a backhand angle). The proper angle is important as it affects depth of penetration, weld contour and gas shielding. The angle may be varied slightly, depending on the arc travel speed, welding position, size of weld required and welding current. In application, where welding is done at high speed, the forehand angle may be greater. Vertical welding must always be done in the upward direction with a forehand angle in range of 10 to 15. For fillet welding lap and tee joints, the torch bisects the 90 angle made by the joint and has a forehand angle of 10 to 15 in the direction of travel. When welding pieces of dissimilar thickness, the gun should be directed towards the heavier member.

Preparation of Base Metal

Edge preparation shall be accomplished by disc grinding, shearing, plasma-arc cutting, sawing, chipping, planing, milling, routing, or other method approved by the engineer.* When disc grinding is used for edge preparation, high speed flexible grinding discs shall be used. The grinding disc shall be maintained free of lubricants and other foreign material.* When shearing is used for edge preparation the shear blade shall be kept sharp and free of foreign material. The sheared edge of aluminum shall be filed, planed or routed to remove any metal that can possibly entrap foreign material such as cutting oil.* To allow effective cleaning, surfaces and edges to be welded shall be smooth, uniform, and free from fins, cracks, and other defects that could introduce porosity or oxides into the weld.* When plasma arc cutting is used for the edge preparation of heat-treatable alloys, 3 mm of material shall be removed from the cut edges by mechanical means. This includes both butt and T-joints.* Note: Plasma arc cutting of heat treatable aluminum alloys may produce lamellar fissures.* In plasma arc cutting of non-heat-treatable alloys, the arc shall be adjusted and directed to avoid cutting beyond the prescribed lines. Surface roughness of the cut surfaces shall be no greater than 25 um for material up to 100 mm thick and 50 um for material 100-200 mm thick, except that the ends of members not subject to calculated stress at the ends may meet the surface roughness value of 50 um. Roughness exceeding the permissible amount and occasional notches or gouges greater than 5 mm deep on otherwise satisfactory surfaces shall be flared into the cut surface by machining or grinding to a slope not exceeding 1 in 10.* At cut edges, occasional notches or gouges less than 10 mm deep in material up to 100 mm thick, or less than 15 mm deep in material thicker than 100 mm may, with the engineer's approval, be repaired by welding.* The removal of temporary welds or of unacceptable work and the backgouging of welds may be effected by machining, sawing, air carbon arc, plasma arc, or impact chipping.* Backgouging of welds shall produce a groove having a profile and a depth adequate to ensure

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-5fusion with the adjacent base metal and penetration into the root of the previously deposited weld metal.* Reentrant corners shall have a radius of not less than 10 mm. The corner radius and its adjacent cuts shall meet without offset and without cutting past the point of tangency.* All surfaces to be welded shall be wire brushed to remove oxides. In multi-pass welds the weld bead shall be wire brushed between passes. The brushes (stainless steel) shall be kept exclusively for use on aluminum. Note: Equipment used for preparing aluminum should be used solely for this purpose to prevent contamination of the base material from foreign materials. Cleaning should be done just prior to welding but if welding is delayed, the cleaned material shall be covered with polyethylene sheet, paper or other protective covering, to guard against contamination. Weld Quality

Insufficient throat is not permitted.*

Weld termination craters shall not be permitted.* If the surface finishing reveals porosity then the section shall be inspected for internal porosity.* Welds shall be free from cracks, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and essential free from undercut, overlap, or surface porosity.* Continuous undercut depth shall not exceed the smaller of T/5 of 1 mm on each side of the joint, where T is the member thickness.* Isolated undercut shall not exceed 2 mm in depth. Undercut greater than 1 mm in depth shall not have a length greater than 15 mm.* Groove weld reinforcement at the centre of the weld shall not exceed the values given in Figure 10(a) and (b) of W59.2. If present, shall be built up uniformly to blend into the surface of the base metal to a maximum at the centre of the weld.* When butt joints are used to join members differing in thickness, there shall be a smooth transition between the offset surfaces with a length of taper not less than four times the difference in thickness.* Fillet welds shall have a degree of convexity not exceeding 0.1s + 1.5 mm where s = size of the minimum leg length in mm.* Fillet welds shall conform to the profiles shown in Fig. 11 of W59.2. Fillet welds shall be free of the defects shown in Fig. 11 of W59.2.* Welds shall not be peened. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, ground, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

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-6Essential Variables The following are considered essential variables for Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) (Clause 8.2.3.4 of CSA W47.2): (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) a change of base metal alloy group (see Table 1A); a change of filler metal alloy group (see Table 1B); the omission of aluminum backing material or the substitution of other than aluminum backing material; a change in current of ±10% and/or arc voltage of ±2 V; a change from constant dc current to pulsed dc current or vice versa; a change of ±25% from the specified travel speed; a change of ±25% in the specified preheat; a change from a single gas to any other single gas; a change from a single gas to a mixture of gases or vice versa; a change of ±10% in specified composition of gas mixture; an increase of 50% or more, or a decrease of 20% or more, in the flow rate of shielding gas; a change in the nominal diameter of the electrode wire; a change in welding position except as provided for in Clause 8.3.1; a change in direction of progression in vertical welding; a change in specified joint geometry; a change from welding from one side to welding from both sides or vice versa; the omission, but not the inclusion, of back gouging; and a change of cleaning procedure (see Appendix E)

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Data Sheets

The attached data sheets form part of this specification.**

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Those items marked with an asterisk have been extracted in whole or in part from: CSA W59.2-M1991 WELDED ALUMINIUM CONSTRUCTION, CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 1991, REXDALE, ONTARIO, CANADA. Those items marked with a double asterisk have been extracted in whole or in part from: CSA W47.2-M1987 CERTIFICATION OF COMPANIES FOR FUSION WELDING OF ALUMINIUM, CANADIAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION, 1987, REXDALE, ONTARIO, CANADA

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COMPANY NAME:

______________________________

COMPANY ADDRESS:_____________________________ W47.1/AWS D1.6 WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR GAS METAL ARC WELDING OF STAINLESS STEEL SPECIFICATION No.: ____________ Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of stainless steel, which are fabricated in accordance with CSA W47.1 and AWS D1.6. The attached data sheets form an essential part of this specification. CSA Standard W59 may be referenced when joining stainless steel to carbon steel. A change in any of the essential variables contained in the succeeding paragraphs or detailed on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) will require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure

The welding shall be done using the Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) process. Joints shall be made by single or multiple pass welding, from one or both sides, as indicated on the accepted Welding Procedure Data sheets referring to this specification.

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CWB

Base Metal

The base metals used shall conform to ASTM austenitic stainless steel specifications as note on the Welding Procedure Data Sheets welded to each other or to carbon steels conforming to the specifications of steel groups 1,2 and 3 as per table 11-1 or table 12-1 of CSA W59. Other grades of stainless steel and carbon steel may be welded provided accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets are available.

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X

Base Metal Thickness

Base metal from 2.0 mm (1/16 in.) to unlimited thickness may be welded under this specification provided that the Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Thicknesses less than 2.0 mm (1/16 in.) may be welded providing data sheets have been accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

X This space to be stamped by P. Eng. if Div. 1 or Div. 2 company. Welding Supervisor's Signature if Div. 3 company.

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ENGINEER OR SUPERVISOR

- 2 Filler Metal Filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to specifications for Stainless Steel Electrodes for Gas Metal Arc Welding under AWS A5.9. The choice of filler metal shall be in accordance with the following table or as shown on the CWB accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Base Metal 304L 308 309 309S 310 310S 316 316H 316L 317 321 321H 347 347H 348 348H

304 304H 305 304L

308

308

308 309 308 309 308 309 309

308 309 308 309 308 309 309

308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310 309 310 310

308 309 310 308 309 310 308 309 310 309 310 309S 310S 310

308 316 308 316 308 316 309 316 309 316 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316

308 316 308L 316L 308 316 309 316 309S 316L 310 310Mo 316 310Mo 316 316

308 316 317 308 316 317 308 316 317 309 316 309 316 310 310Mo 317 310Mo 317 316 317 317 317

308

308

304L

308

308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 321

308L 347 308 347 309 347 309 347 308 310 308 310 308 316 347 316L 347 308 317 347 308L 347

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308 309S

308

309 309S 310

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316L

310S 316H 316 316L 317

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321 321H

Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes All electrodes shall be delivered in sealed containers that do not show evidence of damage.

All electrodes shall be stored in warm and dry conditions and kept free from oil, grease and other deleterious matter once they have bee removed from their containers. Position

- 3 The welding shall preferably be done in the flat position. The horizontal, vertical and overhead positions may be used provided accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets referring to those positions and the Welding Procedure Specification are followed. Preheat Preheat does not normally apply to the welding of austenitic stainless steel, but if required, details will be shown on the specific Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Electrical Characteristics Welding equipment will be used having a constant voltage characteristic. The welding current specified will be direct current electrode positive or alternating current. MANUFACTURER'S RECOMMENDED WELDING PARAMETERS This table shows the recommended parameters for all electrodes to be covered by this specification. Electrode Classification

Welding Technique

Refer to the Welding Procedure Data Sheet for the precise GMAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow rate, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the torch angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator. Preparation of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by shear or plasma arc cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld. All moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Contact with lead, zinc, or lead or zinc compound shall be avoided due to the potential for hot cracking. All surfaces to be welded shall be wire brushed prior to welding. In multi-pass welds the weld bead shall be wire brushed between passes. The brushes shall be of stainless steel and be kept exclusively for use on stainless steel and be kept clean and free of contaminants. All other equipment such as grinding discs shall be kept exclusively for use on stainless steels.

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Electrode Diameter

Position

Amperage

Polarity

Voltage

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- 4 Back gouging of welds shall produce a groove having a profile and a depth adequate to ensure fusion with the adjacent base metal and penetration into the root of the previously deposited weld metals. Weld Quality Cracks or blowholes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and groove welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable weld profiles specified in Clause 5.11 of AWS D 1.6. All welds shall be free of cracks. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface. Undercut shall be limited to that described in Clauses 6.28 and 6.29 of AWS D 1.6. All welds shall be free from overlap. In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 6.28 and 6.29 of AWS D 1.6 standard.

Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. After the final pass all slag and weld spatter shall be removed. Arc strikes shall be removed by grinding or other suitable means. Cracks or blemishes caused by arc strike shall be ground to a smooth contour and examined visually to assure complete removal.

Treatment of Underside of Groove

Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged to sound metal unless otherwise specified on an applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet, accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau. Essential Variables The variables listed in Table 4.1 of AWS D1.6 are considered, as essential variables .Any of the essential variable changes listed in Table 4.1 require requalification of the Welding Procedure Data Sheet. Welding Procedure Data Sheets The attached Welding Procedure Data Sheets form part of this specification.

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- 1 COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS: . .

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR FLUX AND METAL CORED ARC WELDING SPECIFICATION No.: Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of steel structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standards W47.1 and W59, latest revisions. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in succeeding paragraphs or detailed on applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure .

The welding shall be done semi-automatically using the FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding) or MCAW (Metal Cored Arc Welding) process. Joints shall be made following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA Standard W59, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

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Base Metal

The base metal shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, 3 as per Table 11.1 or Table 12.1 of CSA Standard W59. Other groups may be welded providing Welding Procedure Data Sheets are accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

E

Base Metal Thickness

Base metal thicknesses from 3 mm (1/8") to UNLIMITED THICKNESS inclusive may be welded under this specification providing the respective Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted for the appropriate weld size.

CWB Acceptance

Engineer or Supervisor Acceptance

Filler Metal

- 2 The filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to CSA Standard W48. Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Electrodes shall be dry and free from surface rust and foreign material. Shielding Gas The shielding gas shall be a welding grade having a dew point of -40oC (-40oF) or lower. The shielding gas/electrode combination shall be as shown on the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets. Flux cored arc welding with external gas shielding shall not be done in a draught or wind unless the weld is protected by a shelter. This shelter shall be of material and shape appropriate to reduce wind velocity in the vicinity of the weld to 8 km/hr. (5 mph).

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Position

The welding shall be done preferably in the flat position, but other positions such as horizontal, vertical and overhead are permissible providing the proper Data Sheets are supplied and approved. Preheat

The minimum preheat before welding will comply with Table 5.3 of CSA Standard W59. Minimum preheat to be maintained or exceeded during welding. If welding is interrupted for some time so that the temperature of the base metal falls below the minimum preheat temperature, then arrangements will be made to preheat again prior to recommencing welding. The weldment shall be allowed to cool to the ambient temperature, without external quench media being supplied. In other words, do not cool using water or by immediate placement in frigid conditions which will cause a quick temperature change.

Heat Treatment and Stress Relieving

This will not be applicable to structures welded under this specification, unless a specific Data Sheet showing all the parameters is submitted to the Canadian Welding Bureau and acceptance is obtained. Electrical Characteristics The welding current shall be direct current (straight or reverse polarity) using a constant voltage type power supply. The range of parameters will be as per electrode manufacturer's instructions and will be shown on the Welding Procedure Data Sheet.

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- 3 Welding Technique Refer to the Data Sheet for the precise variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow rate, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the torch angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator. Generally, the forehand technique provides better visibility of the weld joint and a flatter weld puddle. The backhand technique yields better penetration. Torch angle is usually maintained with 10 to 20 degrees on either side of vertical. Preparation Of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by oxy-acetylene machine cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld. All loose or thick scale, rust, moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Quality

Cracks or blow holes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and butt welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable fillet weld profiles shown in Figure 5.4 of CSA Standard W59. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 11.5.4/12.5.4 of CSA Standard W59.

Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. Prior to painting, etc., all slag shall be removed and the parts shall be free of loose scale, oil and dirt. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

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- 1 COMPANY NAME: COMPANY ADDRESS: . .

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION FOR GAS METAL ARC WELDING
SPECIFICATION No.: Scope This Welding Procedure Specification covers welding and related operations of steel structures which are fabricated in accordance with the terms outlined in CSA Standards W47.1, W59, and AWS D1.3 latest revisions. The attached Data Sheets form an essential part of this specification. A change in any of the essential variables contained in succeeding paragraphs or detailed on applicable Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s) shall require a new Welding Procedure Specification and/or a new Welding Procedure Data Sheet(s). Welding Procedure .

The welding shall be done semi-automatically using the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) process. Joints shall be made following the procedural stipulations indicated in CSA Standard W59, and may consist of single or multiple passes in accordance with the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets to which this specification refers.

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Base Metal

The base metal shall conform to the specifications of steel groups 1, 2, 3 as per Table 11.1 or Table 12.1 of CSA Standard W59. Other groups may be welded providing Welding Procedure Data Sheets are accepted by the Canadian Welding Bureau.

E

Base Metal Thickness

Base metal thicknesses from 16Ga to UNLIMITED THICKNESS inclusive may be welded under this specification providing the respective Welding Procedure Data Sheets have been supplied and accepted for the appropriate weld size.

CWB Acceptance

Engineer or Supervisor Acceptance

- 2 Filler Metal The filler metal shall be certified by the Canadian Welding Bureau as conforming to CSA Standard W48. Storage and Conditioning of Electrodes Electrodes shall be dry and free from surface rust and foreign material. Shielding Gas The shielding gas shall be a welding grade having a dew point of -40oC (-40oF) or lower. The shielding gas/electrode combination shall be as shown on the accepted Welding Procedure Data Sheets. Welding shall not be done in a draught or wind unless the weld is protected by a shelter. This shelter shall be of material and shape appropriate to reduce wind velocity in the vicinity of the weld to 8 km/hr. (5 mph).

SA

Position

The welding shall be done preferably in the flat position, but other positions such as horizontal, vertical and overhead are permissible providing the proper Data Sheets are supplied and approved. Preheat

The minimum preheat before welding will comply with Table 5.3 of CSA Standard W59. Minimum preheat to be maintained or exceeded during welding. If welding is interrupted for some time so that the temperature of the base metal falls below the minimum preheat temperature, then arrangements will be made to preheat again prior to recommencing welding. The weldment shall be allowed to cool to the ambient temperature, without external quench media being supplied. In other words, do not cool using water or by immediate placement in frigid conditions which will cause a quick temperature change.

Heat Treatment and Stress Relieving

This will not be applicable to structures welded under this specification, unless a specific Data Sheet showing all the parameters is submitted to the Canadian Welding Bureau and acceptance is obtained. Electrical Characteristics The welding current shall be direct current (reverse polarity) using a constant voltage type power supply. The range of parameters will be as per electrode manufacturer's instructions and will shown on the Welding Procedure Data Sheet.

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- 3 Welding Technique Refer to the Data Sheet for the precise GMAW variables to be used in welding a particular thickness and joint configuration, position and parameters, i.e. stick-out, gas flow rate, travel speed, passes and layers, etc. The selection of the torch angle depends on joint type, material thickness, edge preparation, in addition to the degree of skill and experience of the operator. Generally, the forehand technique provides better visibility of the weld joint and a flatter weld puddle. The backhand technique yields better penetration. Torch angle is usually maintained with 10 to 20 degrees on either side of vertical. Preparation Of Base Material The edges or surfaces of parts to be joined by welding shall be prepared by oxy-acetylene machine cutting. Where hand cutting is involved the edge will be ground to a smooth surface. All surfaces and edges shall be free from fins, tears, cracks or any other defects which would adversely affect the quality of the weld. All loose or thick scale, rust, moisture, grease or other foreign material that would prevent proper welding or produce objectionable fumes, shall be removed. Quality

Cracks or blow holes that appear on the surface of any pass shall be removed before depositing the next covering pass. The procedure and technique shall be such that undercutting of base metal or adjacent passes is minimized. Fillet and butt welds shall meet the desirable or acceptable fillet weld profiles shown in Figure 5.4 of CSA Standard W59. The reinforcement in groove welds shall not exceed 3 mm (1/8") and shall have a gradual transition to the plane of the base metal surface In general, the weld quality will be such as to meet the requirements of Clause 11.5.4/12.5.4 of CSA Standard W59.

Weld Metal Cleaning

Slag or flux remaining after a pass, shall be removed before applying the next covering pass. Prior to painting, etc., all slag shall be removed and the parts shall be free of loose scale, oil and dirt. Treatment of Underside of Welding Groove Prior to depositing weld metal on the underside of a welding groove, the root shall be gouged, or chipped to sound metal, unless otherwise specified on the applicable Data Sheet.

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