Weathering and Erosion

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Assignment: Earthquakes

Diamonds

University of Phoenix

September 25, 2011

Diamonds

As the famed saying goes, “Diamonds are a girl’s best friend”. Not only are diamonds a girls friend but also industries friend as well. Diamonds are formed approximately 100 miles below the surface. Diamonds are a crystalline form of carbon. Carbon is crystallized in super heat and pressure in the boiling magma. Even apart from its rarity and value, diamond is a remarkable mineral (Murck, B. W., Skinner, B. J., & Mackenzie, D. (2008). Diamonds are pure elemental carbon, the same chemical found in graphite and charcoal. Carbon-12 is the most important atom living in beings, besides being the sole component of diamond, graphite and coal. Diamonds are fascinating. They are chemically resistant and it is the hardest natural known substance. Diamonds also have special optical properties such as high index refraction, high dispersion and high luster. Four processes are thought to be responsible for virtually all of the natural diamonds that have been found at or near Earth 's surface. One of these processes accounts for nearly 100% of all diamonds that have ever been mined. The remaining three are insignificant sources of commercial diamonds. The first process is diamond formation in Earth 's mantle. Geologists believe that diamonds were formed in the mantle and delivered to the surface by deep volcanic eruptions. These eruptions produce the kimberlite and lamproite pipes that diamond seekers look for. Natural diamonds require very high temperature and pressure. This is not present globally. It is thought to be present primarily in the mantle beneath the stable interiors of continental plates. Diamonds are stored in these “diamond stability zones”. “This type of volcanic eruption is extremely rare and has not occurred since scientists have been able to recognize them” (Geology.com). The second process is diamond formation in sebduction zones. Tiny diamonds have been



References: “Diamonds found in Earth 's oldest crystals” retrieved September 2011 http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070820/full/news070820-7.html Published online 22 August 2007 | Nature | doi:10.1038/news070820-7 “Geology” retrieved September 2011 http://geology.com/rocks “Mineral and rocks” retrieved September 2011 http://geology.com/minerals/diamond. Murck, B. W., Skinner, B. J., & Mackenzie, D. (2008). Visulizing geology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons

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