Ways of Knowing

Topics: Nursing, Scientific method, Nursing care plan, Morality, Nurse / Pages: 3 (665 words) / Published: Jul 11th, 2013
Carper (1978) identified four fundamental patterns of knowing which are (1) empirics, or the science of nursing; (2) personal knowledge; (3) esthetics, or the art of nursing; and (4) ethics, or the moral component of nursing. The purpose of this discussion is to explain how each pattern of knowing affects this author’s practice, and to identify the author’s preferred paradigm and provide justification for choosing this paradigm. Empirical knowing is based on the belief that what someone knows is objective and attainable through our senses (Chinn & Maeona, 2011). Empirical knowledge is created through research to test hypotheses. This type of knowledge could be called evidence based practice. Empirical knowing is used daily in this nurses practice with the administration of medications that have been studied and tested for there efficacy on identified diseases. As an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) this type of knowing will be used to make evidence based choices about diagnoses, medications prescribed, and care plans initiated. The personal knowledge pattern of knowing is based on an interpersonal process which involves “interactions, relationships, and transactions between the nurse and the patient-client” (Carper, 1978). By sharing personal experiences at appropriate times and being open and willing to listen to patients, this nurse practices this pattern of knowing. A major focus of this author’s APN practice will be to get to know each individual client on a personal level. This will show the client that they are important as a person and not just a number. Esthetics knowing or the art of nursing is the ability of a nurse to grasp meaning from each patient encounter (Johnson, 1994). The nurse practicing esthetics must be genuine, empathetic, and strive for a connection with their patients (Johnson, 1994). This author toils with practicing esthetics in his current position as an emergency room (ER) nurse. When patients come to the ER on a frequent


References: Carper, B. A. (1978). Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(1), 13-23. Retrieved fromhttp://journals.lww.com/advancesinnursingscience/toc/1978/10000 Chinn , P. L., & Maeona, K. K. (2011). Integrated theory and knowledge development in nursing. (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Johnson, J. L. (1994). A dialectical examination of nursing art. Advances in Nursing Science, 17(1), 1-14. Monti, E. J., & Tingen, M. S. (1999). Multiple paradigms of nursing science. Advances in Nursing Science, 21(4), 64-80. Retrieved fromhttps://ecampus.southalabama.edu/access/content/group/f66d7baf d3a3-4e71-aa10-f33c4ded1c47/Unit%20II/Multiple%20Paradigms.pdf

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