Name: _ANSWER KEY_
Date of Science Exam: __________
Science 8 - Semester One - Final Exam Study Guide (2012-2013) Safety and Tools 1. A fire blanket puts out a fire on a _person_, while a fire extinguisher puts out a flame on an_object_. 2. What tool should be used to accurately measure the volume of a liquid? _graduated cylinder_ 3. What tool should be used to handle hot materials in a classroom? _oven mitts_ The Metric System Complete the following ladder below and use it to answer the following conversion questions. kilo1000 hecto100
deka10 deci0.1 centi0.01 milli0.001
2.4 km = _240,000_ cm 300 mL = _0.3_ L 1250 g = _125,000_ cg
4. Name the basic SI unit of measurement for each of the following: Volume is measured in _Liter_ Mass is measured in _gram_
Length is measured in _meter_ Temperature is measured in _Celcius_
States of Matter 5. Draw a picture for the arrangement of molecules for each of the three states of matter.
6. 7. 8. 9.
Solid Liquid A solid has a _definite_ shape and _definite_ volume. A liquid takes the _shape_ of its container and has a _definite_ volume. A gas _fills_ its container and has _in-_ definite volume. True / False. The particles of matter are always in constant motion, even when it is really cold.
Waves 10. Waves transfer _energy_ from place to place, and it spreads _out evenly_ from the source. 11. What is a mechanical wave? _A wave that requires a medium to travel through._ Example of a mechanical wave? _Sound_ An example of a non-mechanical wave (electromagnetic)? _Light_ 12. Label the following parts on a longitudinal wave: Compression a. Compression b. Rarefaction 13. In a longitudinal wave, the particles move Rarefaction parallel / perpendicular to the direction which the energy moves. 14. A longitudinal wave’s wavelength can be found in two different ways. What are they? a. _compression_ to _compression_ b. _rarefaction_ to _rarefaction_ 1
15. Draw a transverse wave and label the following: a. Crest b. Trough c. Normal/Resting Point/Equilibrium d. Amplitude e. Wavelength 16. In a transverse wave, the particles move parallel / perpendicular to the direction which the energy moves. 17. A transverse wave’s wavelength can be found in three different ways. What are they? a. _Crest_ to _Crest_ b. _Normal_ to _Normal_ c. _Trough_ to _Trough_ 18. The amplitude is the measure of how much _energy_ a wave carries. 19. The amplitude of a transverse wave can be found by measuring the distance between the _crest_ and the _normal_ or the _trough_ and the _normal_. 20. Circle the correct answers about the speed of sound and light in different materials. a. Sound waves travel fastest through a solid / liquid / gas / vacuum because the molecules in that medium are closest together / farther apart. b. Sound waves travel fastest through denser / less dense materials. c. Sound travels slowest through hotter / cooler materials because the molecules are moving slower / faster. d. Sound waves travel slowest in more elastic / inelastic materials because the particles do / do not bounce back very quickly. e. Electromagnetic, or light waves, travel fastest through a solid / liquid / gas / vacuum because the molecules are closest together / farther apart. f. You see lightning before hearing thunder because sound travels slower / faster than light. 21. The elasticity of a material describes the ability for the molecules of an object to _bounce back after being deformed; to retain its shape_. Circle the most inelastic material: Water Rubber Steel Wood 22. The loudness (amount of energy in a sound wave) is measured by the _Decibel_ Scale. 23. What are the three main causes of hearing loss? *Star the main cause for teenagers/young adults* _*Exposure to loud sounds*_ _Aging_ _Infection/Disease_ 24. Frequency is the measure of how many waves pass in a one second. Amplitude is a measure of how much energy the...
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