Water is an essential element to our everyday existence. Its role is vital in the sustenance of all life forms, as well as in agricultural, industrial, households, recreational and environmental activities. As population continues to rise, so does the demand for fresh water too. Water is a major factor shaping the natural environment. It has a long-term influence on the vegetation, fauna, and shape of the landscape and on various ecosystems. 1,830 SQ KILOMETERS OF PHILIPPINE RIVERS AND LAKES COVER 61% OF THE COUNTRY’S TOTAL LAND AREA 50,000 SQ KILOMETERS OF GROUNDWATER RESERVOIR IS RECHARGED BY RAIN AND SEEPAGE FROM RIVER AND LAKES 421 PRINCIPAL RIVER BASINS, OF WHICH 20 ARE CONSIDERED MAJOR RIVER BASINS 53,943 MILLION CUBIC METERS ESTIMATED ANNUAL DISCHARGE OF CAGAYAN RIVER, THE LONGEST AND LARGEST RIVER IN THE PHILIPPINES, WITH A GROUND WATER RESERVE OF 47,895 MILLION CUBIC METERS 79 LAKES MOSTLY UTILIZED FOR FISH PRODUCTION
86% OF PIPED-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS THAT USE GROUNDWATER AS A SOURCE 146 BILLION CU.M ESTIMATED AMOUNT OF THE COUNTRY’S WATER SUPPLY 6.1 MILLION LITERS PER SECOND (LPS) TOTAL ALLOCATION OF WATER FOR DIFFERENT USES 1.06 MILLION LPS SURFACE WATER ALLOCATED FOR POWER GENERATION IN REGION 2, THE LARGEST IN THE ENTIRE COUNTRY 12, 879 LPS GROUNDWATER ALLOCATED FOR MUNICIPAL USE IN REGION 4, THE LARGEST IN THE ENTIRE COUNTRY 207 MILLION CU METERS PROJECTED WATER CONSUMPTION IN METRO MANILA BY 2010 59 NATURAL LAKES AND MORE THAN 100,000 HA OF FRESHWATER SWAMPS THERE ARE FOUR MAJOR GROUNDWATER RESERVOIRS (CAGAYAN, 10,000 KM2; CENTRAL LUZON, 9,000 KM2; AGUSAN, 8,500 KM2; COTABATO, 6,000 KM2) WHICH, WHEN COMBINED WITH SMALLER RESERVOIRS ALREADY IDENTIFIED, WOULD AGGREGATE TO AN AREA OF ABOUT 50,000 KM2 A SURVEY OF SURFACE WATER STORAGE POTENTIAL HAS IDENTIFIED SITES FOR 438 MAJOR DAMS AND 423 SMALLER DAMS AS ESTIMATED 146,000 MCM TOTAL WATER RESOURCE POTENTIAL
438 MAJOR DAMS AND 423 SMALLER DAMS (TOTAL OF 861 IMPOUNDING DAMS AND RESERVOIR SITES) IDENTIFIED SITES OF WATER SURFACE WATER STORAGE POTENTIAL
The world's second largest archipelago country after Indonesia, the Philippines includes more than 7,100 islands covering 297,179 km2 in the westernmost Pacific Ocean. The Philippines lies north of Indonesia and directly east of Vietnam. The country is one of the few nations that is, in its entirety, both a hotspot and a megadiversity country, placing it among the top priority hotspots for global conservation.
The archipelago is formed from a series of isolated fragments that have long and complex geological histories, some dating back 30-50 million years. With at least 17 active volcanoes, these islands are part of the "Ring of Fire" of the Pacific Basin. The archipelago stretches over 1,810 kilometers from north to south. Northern Luzon is only 240 kilometers from Taiwan (with which it shares some floristic affinities), and the islands off southwestern Palawan are only 40 kilometers from Malaysian Borneo. The island of Palawan, which is separated from Borneo by a channel some 145 meters deep, has floristic affinities with both the Philippines and Borneo in the Sundaland Hotspot, and strong faunal affinities with the Sunda Shelf. Hundreds of years ago, most of the Philippine islands were covered in rain forest. The bulk of the country was blanketed by lowland rainforests dominated by towering dipterocarps (Dipterocarpaceae), prized for their beautiful and straight hardwood. At higher elevations, the lowland forests are replaced by montane and mossy forests that consist mostly of smaller trees and vegetation. Small regions of seasonal forest, mixed forest and savanna, and pine-dominated cloud forest covered the remaining land area.
The first soil survey in the Philippines was done by Mr. Clarence Dorsey, an American soil scientist in the province of Batangas in 1903. The Soils of the Philippines, however, is the first comprehensive summary of more than a...
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