Water Crisis in UAE
Water crisis refers to the situation where the available water within a geographical location cannot meet the water needs of the population in that location. This prevalent situation has drawn considerable attention in most countries due to its severity to humanity. Because of the tripling of the population in the 21st century, the demand for water has remained considerably higher than the available clean and safe water. Despite the fact that the earth is covered by seventy percent of water, only four percent of this water is fresh. The rest is saline. Additionally, out of the fresh water, sixty-nine percent consists of glaciers, while the rest is available as surface or underground water. As a result, only one percent is available for direct human consumption, which is relatively less than the human demand (Jennifer, 2010). This condition has necessitated most countries to embrace the option of underground water or desalinization to sustain the ever-increasing demand for water. Similarly, climate change has considerably contributed to the worldwide water crisis. Due to global warming, the level of water loss on the earth’s surface has increased especially in tropical regions. This with other factors has led to water crisis. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), water crisis has been on the rise with the increase in population. With the rapid growth in population influenced by the booming economic activities within the country, the need for clean and safe water has increased surpassing the supply. The country’s climate, characterized by little precipitation because of high temperatures and low humidity, contributes to the water crisis. The temperatures, which fluctuate between 400C and 200C during the year, significantly influence the long run average precipitation. The country’s precipitation levels are an estimated 80 mm per year (Environmental Agency, 2010). This situation is alarming especially in consideration to the growing population. The country has resorted to other forms of water generation such as desalinization and underground water mining to meet partially its water needs. Nevertheless, the people’s culture of water consumption has been linked to the water crisis. It is estimated that an individual in UAE spends about 500 liters of water in a day, while the average consumption on a worldwide scale is approximately 250 liters per day. Therefore, it is essential to establish the major contributor to water crisis between nature and people to determine possible ways of dealing with water crisis. Background
Water crisis has been described as the scarcity of water that can support humanity, agriculture, energy generation, industries, and general usage. This phenomenon has been adverse in most nations dictating the need for the addition of the valuable resource. The population increase is one of the contributing factors. In UAE, since 1962, after the full exploitation of oil, the country received a massive population growth because of immigration. This population provided the needed labor in the commercial exploitation of oil. With the small percentage of arable land and low precipitation in the country, it became considerably important to develop water alternatives that meet the peoples’ needs. Since the country has little amounts of surface water, it has focused on the extraction of underground water and desalinization in order to sustain the growing water demands. Similarly, the economic proceedings in the country have facilitated the appropriate means of supplying water. Regardless of the government’s efforts, there still exists a huge gap between the amount of water supplied and its demand. Therefore, the study focuses on the factors that influence water crisis in UAE. In analyzing the water crisis, the study seeks to establish the role that nature and people play in contributing to the phenomenon. In this regard, conclusions will be drawn based on the major contributor, which...
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