Waste Water Treatment

Topics: Water, Water pollution, Sewage treatment, Oxygen, Wastewater, Waste / Pages: 30 (7313 words) / Published: Nov 8th, 2011
Sewage treatment

The objective of sewage treatment is to produce a disposable effluent without causing harm to the surrounding environment and prevent pollution.[1]
Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such technology on a production scale in its production of NEWater[2].
Contents
[hide]
• 1 Origins of sewage
• 2 Process overview o 2.1 Pre-treatment
 2.1.1 Screening
 2.1.2 Grit removal
 2.1.3 Fat and grease removal o 2.2 Primary treatment o 2.3 Secondary treatment
 2.3.1 Activated sludge
 2.3.2 Surface-aerated basins (Lagoons)
 2.3.3 Constructed wetlands
 2.3.4 Filter beds (oxidizing beds)
 2.3.5 Soil Bio-Technology
 2.3.6 Biological aerated filters
 2.3.7 Rotating biological contactors
 2.3.8 Membrane bioreactors
 2.3.9 Secondary sedimentation o 2.4 Tertiary treatment
 2.4.1 Filtration
 2.4.2 Lagooning
 2.4.3 Nutrient removal
 2.4.3.1 Nitrogen removal
 2.4.3.2 Phosphorus removal o 2.5 Disinfection o 2.6 Odour Control
• 3 Package plants and batch reactors
• 4 Sludge treatment and disposal o 4.1 Anaerobic digestion o 4.2 Aerobic digestion o 4.3 Composting o 4.4 Incineration o 4.5 Sludge disposal
• 5 Treatment in the receiving environment o 5.1 Effects on Biology
• 6 Sewage treatment in developing countries
• 7 See also
• 8 References
• 9 External links

[edit] Origins of sewage
Sewage is created by residential,



References: 1. ^ Khopkar, S. M. (2004). Environmental Pollution Monitoring And Control 3. ^ Burrian, Steven J., et al. (1999)."The Historical Development of Wet-Weather Flow Management." . New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. 2001. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. http://unix.eng.ua.edu/~rpitt/Publications/BooksandReports/Stormwater%20Effects%20Handbook%20by%20%20Burton%20and%20Pitt%20book/MainEDFS_Book.html 5. ^ Water and Environmental Health at London and Loughborough (1999). "Wastewater Treatment Options." 6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n EPA. Washington, DC (2004). "Primer for Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems." 8. ^ a b c d Beychok, M.R. (1971). "Performance of surface-aerated basins". Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series 67 (107): 322–339. Available at CSA Illumina website 9. ^ Kadam, A.; Ozaa, G.; Nemadea, P.; Duttaa, S.; Shankar, H. (2008). "Municipal wastewater treatment using novel constructed soil filter system". Chemosphere (Elsevier) 71 (5): 975–981. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.11.048 10. ^ Nemade, P.D.; Kadam, A.M.; Shankar, H.S. (2009). "Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): A novel approach" 12. ^ EPA. Washington, DC (2007). "Membrane Bioreactors." 13. ^ Das, Tapas K. (08 2001). "Ultraviolet disinfection application to a wastewater treatment plant". Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (Springer Berlin/Heidelberg) 3 (2): 69–80. doi:10.1007/S100980100108 15. ^ Harshman, Vaughan; Barnette, Tony (05 2000). "Wastewater Odor Control: An Evaluation of Technologies" 16. ^ Walker, James D. and Welles Products Corporation (1976)."Tower for removing odors from gases." U.S. Patent No. 4421534. 17. ^ EPA. Washington, DC (2000). "Package Plants." 18. ^ EPA. Washington, DC (1999). "Sequencing Batch Reactors." 26. ^ Caribbean Environment Programme (1998). Appropriate Technology for Sewage Pollution Control in the Wider Caribbean Region

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