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Waste Segregation

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Analysis on the Garbage Segregation Practice in the Municipality of Sto. Tomas Today

A research present to:
Mrs. Liwanag Rubico

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English III

By:
Amparo, Elaikah G.
Arcillas, William Jr.
Villegas, Rosebeth
Visaya, Jhinel E.

III-Our Lady of Holy Rosary

March, 2011 The purposes of this study are to find out the percentage of female and male respondents practicing the waste segregation and to find out how many people could practice the proper waste disposal. The leader was assigned their member to visit all the residents of Sto.Tomas Batangas to fill up thee queationnaire by answering Yes or No and made observations of their conditions. The idea of the conclusion of this study are quality of instrument in this question has been improve as revealed by the results of the percentage of male and female respondents and that all areas of Sto.Tomas Batangas have been under taken properly as show by the abundant products of Sto. Tomas Batangas. The problems that were encountered in the Sto. Tomas Batangas were : Lack of garbage in every barrios of Sto.Tomas Batangas and lack of active participants of the object focussing on the cleanliness of environment. |

Introduction Waste segregation is the process og dividing garbage and waste products in an effort to reduce reuse and recycle materials. Keep your own house and its surroundings pure and clean. This hygiene will keep you healthy and benefit your worldly life. Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stain, bad smells and garbage. The place where you live somehow determines the kind of person you are and the kind of lifestyle you have. In addition to that, segregation plays a big role in maintaining clean surroundings. Segregation means the act of separating or excluding. By knowing this, waste segregation’s meaning is easy to understand. Waste segregation is the proper separation of waste. In garbage disposal, man should be aware of this two types of waste, the non-biodegradable, and the biodegradable segregation is to put off in 1 an area just by itself so garbage segregation is to collect garbage and put it in an area where it is alone it’s kind of like categorizing something it would be garbage away from everything else. In this case, the garbage may be hazardous. Segregation is the separation between races, colours, classes and more. An example of this is segregation between black and white people in the past. This study of ours will show how strong this implementation of garbage segregation. Biodegradable waste consists of organic waste. These are the kitchen garbage , the vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves and paper. Biodegradability is associated with materials that can be decomposed into non – toxic by products. It has to be an organic substance. These need to be broken down by microorganism to become compost and be useable by plants. Any biodegradable item that ends in a landfill instead of being converted into compost can be worst. Non – biodegradable wastes are those that do not decay. This type can be further classified into three sub classes – the recyclable waste, toxic waste and soiled. Recyclable wastes consist of plastics, paper, glass, metals and many others. The toxic wastes, which are the most harmful to man, consist of medicines, paints, spray cans, bulbs, chemicals, fertilizer and pesticide containers. The soiled wastes ate hospital wastes that includes blood soiled clothes and other clothes soiled by other body fluids. The toxic and the soiled trash must be disposed of properly and under guidance. These are most harmful to men. The act or process of segregating or the condition of being segregated. A segregating or being segregated specify the policy or practice of compelling racial groups to live apart from each other, go to separate schools, use separate social facilities, etc. This is the gauge to proper waste disposal which when done by men can make the environment free from toxins and pollution. You first beneficiary is your family, having a clean environment will drive away illness – causing bacteria. 2
Review of Related Literature
According to Richard Jones and Rafael Lins , John Wiley & Sons, It is remarkable that garbage collection -- which is at heart just the simple problem of calculating graph reach ability -- is still a thriving research area after nearly four decades of work. Mark-sweep collection (McCarthy, 1960) and reference counting (Collins, 1960) were first described in 1960, and the 1981 survey paper by (Cohen, 1981) cited 111 papers on garbage collection; Jones and Lins cite almost 500 references. What 's all the fuss about?
Perhaps the problem is that garbage collectors are subject to many conflicting demands. The collector imposes overhead on any other algorithm the programmer may implement, so it must be extremely time-efficient; it must use as little auxiliary space as possible; it must cause no internal or external fragmentation; it must not interrupt the program with long pauses for collection; it must find pointers even within the registers and stack frames rearranged by a highly optimizing compiler; it must not require special-purpose hardware tag bits or machine instructions; it must not be confused by cycles of pointers; it must be able to operate even while the program is simultaneously fetching and storing pointers; it must work on a distributed computation; it must not disturb the locality of reference of a cached or virtual-memory computation; and it must be simple to implement. If no single algorithm has all these properties, then no algorithm can strictly dominate all the others. Each new research paper claims superiority, but along a dimension subtly different from the previous paper. It is not hard to see why so much has been written, and why further research continues. The authors explain the fundamental algorithms and practically all the modern improvements, 3 discuss the controversies, and give the reader useful criteria for making judgments. Their book is useful as an introduction to the subject, and to each different style of garbage collection (as listed in the chapter summaries below), and also as a bibliographic reference pointing to the best papers of the recent and (``classical ' ') literature.
Many of the algorithms are presented in detailed pseudocode so that the reader can learn how they really work. There are many quantitative and qualitative discussions of experience from the research literature. The prose is accessible to the novice but not tedious to the experienced. There is a glossary, a substantial bibliography, and an index.
The main weakness is an inadequate explanation of how a compiler should describe the layout of stack frames and heap objects to a collector. Many readers of this book will have a compiler to which they wish to attach a collector; their first step must (usually) be to outfit their compiler to propagate type information all the way to the back end. An entire chapter could profitably be devoted to this topic, perhaps starting with (Hudson, 1991) et al and Diwan, Moss, and (Hudson, 1992).
Another useful reference on the subject is a well-written survey paper by (Wilson, 1997), which covers basic algorithms (reference counts, mark-sweep, copying), has a very coherent discussion of several incremental algorithms, covers generational algorithms well, and covers low-level implementation issues such as compiler interfaces. But -- as a survey paper and not a textbook -- it does not provide detailed pseudocode for each algorithm, and cites only about a third as many papers. 4
The Jones and Lins book will likely be the definitive text and reference book on garbage collection for the twentieth century. It presents a very good picture of the state of the art up to 1995. Is it possible that the furious pace of garbage-collection research will abate, or will a book review in the year 2010 discuss the remarkable vigor of research and the 1000+ citations in the latest book of that day?
Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each.
Integrated waste management using LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration, then source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path. Non-metallic waste resources are not destroyed as with incineration, and can be reused/ recycled in a future resource depleted society.
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, 5 mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leach ate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.
Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leach ate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.
Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by 6 industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, PAHs which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences.
Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams.
The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment , polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes.

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PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required.
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
There is a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to small town scale batch digesters, industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment). Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist.
Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of MSW Municipal Solid Waste has been found to be in a number of LCA analysis studies[1][2] to be more environmentally effective, than landfill, incineration or pyrolisis. The resulting biogas (methane) though must be used for cogeneration (electricity and heat preferably on or close to the site of production) and can be 8 used with a little upgrading in gas combustion engines or turbines. With further upgrading to synthetic natural gas it can be injected into the natural gas network or further refined to hydrogen for use in stationary cogeneration fuel cells. Its use in fuel cells eliminates the pollution from products of combustion.
An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto, Canada, where Source Separated Organics (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are collected in a dedicated container and then composted.
The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to anaerobic digestion and the use of the gas fuel (see above), to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products (chemical refinery). The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification and advanced Plasma arc gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. An alternative to pyrolisis is high temperature and pressure supercritical water decomposition (hydrothermal monophasic oxidation). 9
Methodology
This study is used to identify the proper waste disposal of residents of Sto. Tomas Batangas. The distribution on the practices of garbage segregation towards learning the proper waste disposal that leads to know the important proper waste disposal. The percentages were used in the interpretation of data.
Participants
It consisted of 28 male respondents and 12 female respondents. The study surveyed from the different residents of Sto. Tomas Batangas.
Locale of the Study The resident of the respondents is located in Sto. Tomas Batangas was chosen as the locale of the study is Sto. Tomas Batangas because of it’s one of the beautiful province that’s segregate the garbage properly. The questionnaire contains the name of the respondents his/her gender, his/her age, address and the occupation of the respondents. The participant indicate whether the item was Yes or No.

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Procedure
The searcher secured the names of the respondents from all the residents of Sto. Tomas Batangas to give everyone a chance to participate. The searcher went house to house engaging the cooperation of concerned people in filling up the questionaire. The leader checked the names of the respondents against the control sheet.
Table 1. Frequency Distribution on the Practices of Garbage Segregation among the Residents of Sto.Tomas Batangas Statements | Yes | No | 1. I separated biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes. | 39 | 1 | 2. I am throwing garbage in proper containers. | 31 | 9 | 3. I acquire lots of disposable wastes every day. | 33 | 7 | 4. I help picking wastes in my environment to observe cleanliness. | 39 | 1 | 5. I have shown to others proper disposal of garbage in proper containers | 34 | 6 | 6. I contribute to our community’s waste disposal program. | 34 | 6 | 7. I burned plastics, rubber, leaves and etc. | 10 | 30 | 8. I recycle garbage and sell it to help in the cleanliness campaign. | 25 | 15 | 9. I contribute to the development of Environment in the Friendly Waste Disposal. | 32 | 8 | 10. I am active participant of the objects focusing on the cleanliness of environment. | 31 | 9 |

The result of our Survey was demanding in the statement of proper disposal of garbage in proper containers which is 39 % of answering Yes, and disagree among people have 10% which is they do not burned plastic containers. 11 The numbers of the Residents which have 9% of the people were they throwing the garbage container. The highest amount of Recycle was 15% .The lowest percent with 1 % that some people were not get an idea about Proper Waste Disposal.

FIGURE 1. PERCENTAGE RESULTS OF FEMALE RESPONDENTS PRACTICING THE WASTE SEGREGATION

Figure 1 shows the percentage of female respondents practicing the waste segregation. In this table the question number 1, 4 and 5 got highest percent which is 100 % of answering Yes and the lowest percent in answering Yes is question number 7 because it has 8% only. By answering No the highest percent is question number 7 because it has 92 % and the lowest is question number 1, 4 and 5 because it has 0 %. 12 Many female respondents answering Yes in question number 1 because they separated biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes. The question number 4 and 5 are the other highest percent because all the female respondents are picking wastes in their environment to observe cleanliness and show to others proper disposal of garbage in proper containers. Question number 7 has the highest percent in answering No because some of our respondents did not burned plastics, rubber, leaves and etc. In this result we know that the female people of Sto. Tomas Batangas is very helping because they help our surroundings to be clean.

FIGURE 2. PERCENTAGE RESULTS OF MALE RESPONDENTS PRACTICING THE WASTE SEGREGATION

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Figure 2 shows the percentage of male respondents practicing the waste segregation. In this table the question number 1and 4 got highest percent which is 96 % of answering Yes and the lowest percent in answering Yes is question number 7 because it has 25% only. By answering No the highest percent is question number 7 because it has 75 % and the lowest is question number 1 and 4 because it has 4 %. Many male of the respondents answering Yes in question number 1 and 4 because they separated biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes and they picking wastes in their environment to observe cleanliness. Question number 7 has the highest percent in answering No because some of male respondents did not burned plastics, rubber, leaves and etc. In result we know that the people of Sto. Tomas Batangas is very helping because they help our surroundings to be clean. In the result of female and male respondents if we compare the female and male , the female have the highest percentage because female have 100 % while the male have only 96 % in their highest percentage.

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Recommendation

After this study has been conducted, the problem analyzed, and the data gathered and item pretend, the following are recommendation which will possibly help solved the problem present. The first is in all house should have to separate into biodegradable and non- biodegradable. The second is we can recycle the garbage and we can sell it to help in the cleanliness campaign. The third is the people of Sto. Tomas Batangas should be active participants of the object focusing on the cleanliness of environment.

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APPENDIX

ANALYSIS ON THE GARBAGE SEGREGATION PRACTICE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF STO.TOMAS TODAY

We, the students of III – Our Lady of Holy Rosary are conducting this survey as part of our requirement in the English subject. Our study focuses on the Analysis on the Garbage Segregation practice in the Municipality of Sto.Tomas today. Kindly answer the information, and we are assure of you that your answer will remain confidential. There is no wrong answer. Thank you.
NAME: ________________________________________
AGE: __________
SEX: F _____ M _____
ADDRESS: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
OCCUPATION: _________________________________

Put a check mark ( ) on the space that corresponds to your answer. YES NO 1. I separate biodegradable and _____ _____ non-biodegradable wastes. 2. I am throwing garbage in proper _____ _____ containers. 3. I acquire lots of disposable wastes _____ _____ everyday. 4. I help picking wastes in my environment _____ _____ to observe cleanliness. 5. I have shown to others proper disposal _____ _____ of garbage in proper containers. 6. I contribute to our community’s _____ _____ waste disposal program. 7. I burned plastics, rubber, leaves and etc. _____ _____ 8. I recycle garbage and sell it to help _____ _____ in the cleanliness campaign. 9. I contribute to the development of _____ _____
Environment in the Friendly Ways Disposal. 10. I am active participant of the projects focusing _____ _____ on cleanliness of environment. 16
Bibliography
Charles, Camille. 2001. Processes of Racial Residential Segregation. In Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities, eds. A. O’Conner, C. Tilly, and L. D. Bobo. New York: Russell Sage.
Rawlings, Lynette, Laura Harris, and Margery Austin Turner. 2004. Race and Residence: Prospects for Stable Neighborhood Integration. Urban Institute. Neighborhood Change in Urban America Series, no. 3. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=310985.
Turner, Margery Austin, Steven L. Ross, George C. Galster, and John Yinger. 2002. Discrimination in Metropolitan Housing Markets: National Results from Phase I of HDS2000. Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=410821.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Thesis Statetement …………………………….. 1
Introduction …………………………….. 2
Review of Related Literature …………………………….. 4 Methodology , Participants, …………………………… 10 and Locale of Study Procedure and Table 1 …………………………….. 11
Figure 1 ……………………………... 12 Figure 2 ……………………………… 13 Recommendation …………………………….. 15 Appendix …………………………….. 16 Bibliography ……………………………. 17

Bibliography: ……………………………. 17

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