“The Grand Alliance was a myth; self-interest was the only motive of the Allies.” CON: needs to prove self-interest was NOT the only motive
The Grand Alliance was not a myth, as the three leaders Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill, set aside economical and political interests in order to work together as best possible.
This debate takes aside the fact that these countries were jointly fighting Hitler’s Nazi Germany, and to win a victory over the Axis Powers was in the interest of all.
We take issue with Pro’s vague, broad definition of “self-interest”, as it doubtless referring to such interests that are specific to a country in question, rather than collective interests.
ðcooperated with democratic nations-à politically dangerous oMay 1943, Stalin dissolved Cominternà so less communist influence in Western Europe ðProof: accepting US aid in form of more modern technology, e.g. trucks, which the ordinary Russian could see as “products of superior societies” (Brown). oBy 1942: US/Brit combined sent 4 000 tanks and 3 000 trucks ðYalta agreement: Stalin promised to help US’ invasion of Japan ðGave up territory in Eastern Europe
oGave up Greece, part of Yugoslavia, Austria, Czech Sloavia, Albania (Shell) ðYalta Conference (Feb 1945): “Declaration on Liberated Europe” presented by R. oTemporary governments, early free elections
oAllowed Gr. Brit to take charge about territorial issues in France, Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark, Norway (Shell) US:
ðwas anti-communist, but worked w/ USSR
oAt Tehran conference: allowed USSR free reign in own country, puppet gov. in Poland, Czech Slovakia and Baltic States ðIsolationist policy, but Roosevelt promises priority to European war o#s:
oRoosevelt (nov 1941): “I may never declare war; if I were to ask Congress , they might argue about it for three months. §Draft Bill passed by only one vote, without it, wouldn’t have been able to provide soldiers §Neutrality Act repealed by a small majority in Senate (Churchill) ðLend-Lease program:
oover $46, 000 million in military aid
§$30 billion to Brit
§$11 billion to USSR
oFederal budget: $9 billion (’39) è $166 billion (’45)
ðGives up self-interest to aid USSR:
oAfrican theatre was top priority, as Churchill needed dominance of the Mediterranean in order to secure the Middle East and India. oRoosevelt convinced him of 2nd Front in 1944
ðChurchill’s acquiescence to shift of Poland’s borders oDivision line in Poland: restored to 1919 Curzon line
§Percentage agreements w/ Stalin in Oct 1944
oGave Bilo-Russia, western Ukraine back to USSR
oRecognized a “temporary” Communist Polish government in Poland Thus it is proven that Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill set aside their differences in favor of a victory over Hitler.
ðStalin only helping US/Brit because wanted 2nd front
o2nd Front didn’t come until 1945
§Roosevelt/Churchill chose Operation “Husky” over Operation “Overlord” at Jan 1942 Casablanca Conference ðStalin never planned to keep to free-elections: 2/3 of Parliament communist oIt was only to be temporary
oNo proof, as did so in response to US/British, felt threatened §Truman: May 8 1945, stopped Lend-Lease program (started up again Aug 9) §Once conferences: Angl-American sentiment towars USSR
§change once atomic bomb developed; as a result, Stalin felt “his worst hears and suspicions confirmed” (Brown). ðHave you considered Warsaw Rising of 1944:
oRed Army failed, because Ger advances & Red Army ran out of supplies oWarsaw elevated, higher than Prague, so frontal attack impossible §Needed 50 divisions, which they didn’t have at their disposal ð
oWarsaw: Stalin explained why Warsaw could not have been taken §
oSetting up of democratic states in order to contain communsim ðBrit:
oOperation Overlord postponed for 4 years for own interestsà stalin felt resentful §
Brown, Colin and Peter J. Mooney. Cold War to Detene: 1945-85 (2nd Ed). Oxford: Heinemann Educational, 1976/1981.
Churchill, Winston S. The Grand Alliance. Vol III
Darby, Graham. Europe at War, 1939-45. London: HOdder Stoughton, 2003. Harriman. Letter from the Ambassador in the Soviet Union to President Roosevelt. October 1944. Documents on The Grand Alliance, 1944. February 17, 2008. http://www.teachingamericanhistory.org Shell, John L. Expansion of the War 1939-1945. Grolier Online. February 17, 2008. http://www.grolier.com