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War and Peace

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THE JUST WAR

Amoral realism- The realist part of this is the exercise of power- the realise of power- while the amoral part of it is that it is exercised without reference to a moral language. Instead it is a question of desire, glory, non moral motivations.

Moral Realism- The realist part is, once again, the view that power can be exercised without any priori restraints on the basis of rights- so that it is consequentialist theory- but the ends to which power is exercised must themselves be framed in a moral language.

when is it right to go to war?

1) WAR MUST BE A JUST CAUSE- Jus ad bellum ( before war)

A war is only just if it is fought for a reason that is justified and that carries sufficient moral weight. The just cause is to put right a wrong or to prevent a wrong from happening, for example to save life or protect human rights; to secure justice or remedy injustice.

2) WAR MUST BE DECLARED BY A COMPETENT AUTHORITY

Only war declared by the government or ruler of the state with the legitimate authority to declare war can be a just war, although in the islamic concept of Jihad, the legitimate authority is that of a religious leader. The japanese attack on Pearl Harbour in 1941 is a famous example of an attack made before the legitimate authority had declared war.

3) THERE MUST BE JUST INTENTION

The intention must be as just as the cause, i.e. a war should not be undertaken with the deliberate intention of assassinating a country's leader or in a spirit of hatred or revenge. Just intentions might include restoring peace, righting a wrong or assisting the innocent.

4) THERE MUST BE COMPARISON OF JUSTICE ON BOTH SIDES.

Both sides of the conflict should be examined and compared and, in principle, both should have a just reason to take up arms.

5) WAR MUST BE A LAST RESORT.

War should only be resorted to after all negotiations, arbitration and non-military sanctions have failed.

6) THERE SHOULD BE A REASONABLE LIKELIHOOD OF SUCCESS.

This stems from the idea that war is great evil and that it is wrong to cause death, pain and suffering if there is no chance of success. There should be a realistic prospect of the outcome of resulting in a better state of affairs than before the war. Peace and Justice must be restored afterwards. However, it may be necessary, for example, to fight a larger force in order to protect innocent people.

7) PROPORTIONALITY

There must be a proportionate response between the injustice that led to the war and the damage, suffering and death caused by the war itself. Excessive or disproportionate violence should be avoided: 'the damage to be inflicted and the costs incurred by war must be proportionate to the good expected by taking up arms'

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