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volcanoes

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Sadia khan
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3/12/12
Volcano internet assignment
1. Three types of volcanoes are the shield volcano, Strato Volcano’s and cinder cones .The Shield volcanos are usually built entirely from lava flow they are name for their large size and low profile. The Starto’s volcano’s have steep sides with cones that stick out like huge bumps. They are built up when eruptions of viscous lava, tephra, and pyroclastic flows happen. The Cinder cones is a steep conical hill of tephra that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent.[1] The rock fragments, often called cinders or scoria, are glassy and contain numerous gas bubbles "frozen" into place as magma exploded into the air and then cooled quickly. Cinder cones range in size from tens to hundreds of meters tall.

2. The theory of plate tectonics According to the generally accepted plate-tectonics theory, scientists believe that Earth's surface is broken into a number of shifting slabs or plates, which average about 50 miles in thickness. These plates move relative to one another above a hotter, deeper, more mobile zone at average rates as great as a few inches per year. Most of the world's active volcanoes are located along or near the boundaries between shifting plates and are called plate-boundary Volcanoes.

3. The Mid-Atlantic ridge is a mid ocean ridge that a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the world. It separates the Eurasian and the North American plate in the north Atlantic and the African plate from the South African plate in the south Atlantic.

4. Volcanos usually occur when plates rub onto each other. Most volcanoes are created by destructive plate tectonics at the convergence of the boundaries of two continental plates. As the plates collide and rise together they form a mountain over a hot spot.

5. Volcanic eruptions cause earthquakes in three main ways. First, the ascent of magma inside the Earth beneath a volcano triggers earthquakes. This upward movement causes the magma chamber to expand. This puts stress on the rocks around it, causing earthquakes. Second, earthquakes occur for similar reasons as magma moves upwards through the vent of the volcano. Finally, the explosions associated with violent eruptions can cause earthquakes. The patterns that these earthquakes produce are extremely useful to scientists who study volcanoes.

6. Hawaii is one of the most commonly known and most heavily studied hot spot in the world .because the Hawaiian chain is responsible for creating 3,600 mile long chain of volcanos of which four are still currently active and more than 123 are extinct.

7. CLEVELAND,Chuginadak Island ,(52.825, -169.944) & ILIAMNA ,Southwestern Alaska (60.032, -153.09)
8. Give a description for each of the following :
9. Africa: The East African rift, one of the world's most dramatic extensional structures, has produced the continent's highest and lowest volcanoes, ranging from the massive Kilimanjaro.
10. Australia: In South Australia there are 5 volcanos in record Mt Burr, Mt Gambier, Mt Schank and new province none of which have recently erupted.
11. Europe: On 14 April 2010 the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted for a second time in two month after having been dormant for just under 200 years. The second eruption caused an ash plume that was ejected high into the stratosphere and transported by the wind to Northern and Western Europe.
12. North America: Kīlauea is the youngest and southeastern most volcano on the Big Island of Hawai`i. Topographically Kīlauea appears as only a bulge on the southeastern flank of Mauna Loa.
13. North Asia: The Northeast Honshu Arc and the Kurile Arc trend to the northeast. The Izu-Bonin Arc trends to the southeast. The Southwest Honshu Arc and the Ryukyu Arc trend to the south west.
14. South America: Colombia has 15 volcanoes considered active. The volcanoes are related to the subduction zone that runs along the whole of America's western plate margin. Colombia's volcanoes are part of the northern Andes and lie at the junction of 3 tectonic plates, the Nazca, Caribbean and South American plates.
15. –Lasson Volcanic National Park in north eastern us.
- Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve, Alaska -Capulin Volcano National Monument, New Mexico - Crater Lake National Park, Oregon - Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho - Devils Postpile National Monument, California - El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico
- Haleakala National Park, Hawaii
- Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii
- Katmai National Park & Preserve, Alaska
- Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska
- Lassen Volcanic National Park, California - Lava Beds National Monument, California
- Mount Rainier National Park, Washington

16. The pacific ring of fire is is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 25,000 mile horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements.
17. a) Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the plane.
b) About 81 percent of total primary energy supply in Iceland is derived from domestically produced renewable energy sources. In 2007, geothermal energy provided about 66 percent of primary energy, the share of hydropower was 15 percent, and fossil fuels (mainly oil) 19 percent The main use of geothermal energy is for space heating with the heat being distributed to buildings through extensive district-heating systems About 85% of all houses in Iceland are heated with geothermal energy
c) The San Andrea Fault is located in the northern part of American, the northern part of California running about 810 miles through California. The San Andreas Fault is the sliding boundary between the pacific plate and North American plate. It slices California in two from Cape Mendocino to the Mexican border. San Diego, Los Angeles and Big Sur are on the Pacific Plate. San Francisco, Sacramento and the Sierra Nevada are on the North American Plate
d) East pond vent 5, Hawaiian volcanos.

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