Vital Signs (Cardinal Signs) – measurable, concrete indicators that are essential for life. 1. Body Temperature – the degree of the body heat that is a result of the balance maintained between heat produced and heat lost by the body. a. Methods of Temperature measurement
i. Oral – under the tongue – most commonly used ii. Rectal – in the rectum – most accurate (children 7 – 80-90/min. iii. Children 1-7 – 80-120/min.
iv. Infants – 110-130/min.
v. At Birth – 130-160/min.
3. Respiration – the act of breathing, consisting of inspiration (O2) and expiration (CO2) a. Internal respiration – the exchange of respiratory gases between the body cells and the blood. b. External respiration – the exchange of respiratory gases between the alveoli of the lungs and blood. c. Respiration is under voluntary control.
d. Characteristics of Respiration
i. Rate – number of respiration/min. – recorded as normal, rapid, slow, and also as exact rate. ii. Depth – the amount of air inhaled and exhaled, and recorded as shallow or deep. iii. Rhythm – intervals of respiration, may be irregular or regular in regards to rate and depth. e. Respiration Rates
i. Normal Adult – 14-20/min.
ii. Children – 20-26/min.
iii. Infants – 30-38/min.
iv. At Birth – 30-60/min.
4. Blood Pressure – the pressure of the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries which is measured when the heart contracts and releases. a. Systolic Pressure – the force of the blood pushed against the arteries of the wall when the ventricles of the heart are in a state of contraction. It is the top number in a blood pressure reading. b. Diastolic Pressure – the force of the blood in the arterial system when...
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