Visual Impairment

Topics: Blindness, Visual impairment, Ophthalmology Pages: 5 (1198 words) Published: September 24, 2014
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
(Including Blindness)
I. DEFINITION
"Visual impairment including blindness" means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. This impairment refers to abnormality of the eyes, the optic nerve or the visual center for the brain resulting in decreased visual acuity.

Students with visual impairments are identified as those with a corrected visual acuity of 20/70 or less in the better eye or field restriction of less that 20 degrees at its widest point or identified as cortically visually impaired and functioning at the definition of legal blindness.

II. POSSIBLE REFERRAL CHARACTERISTICS
A.

Intellectual
1.

B.

Shows approximately the same distribution of scores on
intellectual tests as sighted individuals, when tests such as auditory-vocal or haptic-motor channels of communication are used

Achievement
1.
2.

C.

Has relatively normal educational achievement
Tends to achieve more poorly in subjects such as mathematics

Behavioral
1.
2.

Holds head in an awkward position to look at something or holds a book or other objects in a peculiar position to look at them

3.

"Tunes out" when information is on the chalkboard or in a book which the student cannot read

4.

Constantly asks a neighbor to tell him/her what is going on

5.

Shows signs of fatigue or inattentiveness

6.
D.

Appears "clumsy," especially in a new situation

Exhibits poor self-concept and ego development

Communicative Abilities
1.

Less effective use of gesture and bodily action

2.

Uses less lip movement in the articulation of sounds
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
1

E.

Physical
1.

Behavior
a.
b.

Shuts or covers one eye, tilts head or thrusts head forward

c.

Has difficulty in reading or in other work requiring close
use of the eyes

d.

Blinks more than usual or is irritable when doing close
work

e.

Holds books close to eyes

f.

Is unable to see distant things clearly

g.
2.

Rubs eyes excessively

Squints eyelids together or frowns

Appearance
a.
b.

Inflamed or watery eyes

c.
3.

Crossed eyes

Recurring styes

Complaints
a.

Eyes itch, burn or feel scratchy

b.

Cannot see well

c.

Dizziness, headaches, or nausea following close eye work

d.

Blurred or double vision

III. SCREENING INFORMATION
A.

Required
1.

Hearing

2.

Vision (To include distance vision and near point vision)

VISUAL IMPAIRMENT
2

B.

Recommended
1.

Formal (Not applicable)

2.

Informal
a.

Observation

b.

Checklists

IV. REQUIRED EVALUATION DATA
A.

Social History

B.

Individual Intelligence (One required)

C.

Individual Achievement (One required)

D.

Adaptive Behavior (One required)

E.

Communicative Abilities (Required as indicated below)
A comprehensive language screening measure is required. Screening instruments must be established and validated for such use and assess areas of receptive and expressive language. These instruments cannot be single-word vocabulary measures only. Review of social, educational, and communication history and/or classroom observation of communicative abilities should also be utilized. If the student fails the screening or if language is identified as a problem area, a diagnostic measure is required.

F.

Other
1.

Medical
a.

Physical examination

b.

Specialized, to include an evaluation by an eye specialist
conducted within the past year, comprised of visual acuity
and refractive errors, prescription correction where
indicated, etiology and prognosis.

2.

Functional vision determination (Required)

3.

Student need for braille instruction (Required)

V. OPTIONAL EVALUATION DATA
A.

Orientation and Mobility Assessment

B.

Sensory and Learning Processes

C.

Specific Subject Areas
VISUAL IMPAIRMENT...
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