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By yinxiaolv Mar 06, 2014 1343 Words
Jun Fu
Ling 3B, M/W 10AM
Comparative essay Draft #2
Violent role in history
In the “Violence Vanquished” with Steven Pinker, Pinker considers that the modern era is the most peaceful time in the history of the human species. All kinds of violence have declined due to the progress of human civilization, government ability to enforcement, development of commerce and the expansion of cosmopolitanism. The author has pulled together data from numerous statistical sources to back up his claim that violence has tended to decline through human history. He then tries to explain this, and overall it's an impressive synthesis. Pinker cites the five examples. The first example talks about 5000 years ago, when humans lived in tribes. Often there will be a war between tribes and tribes, but after the war is unified, the numerous tribes that make up a kingdom, reducing a lot of such violent behaviors. The second example talks about the decline of violence was a civilizing process that is best documented in Europe. Historical records show that in the late Middle Ages and the beginning of the 20th century, European countries saw a 10 to 50 times more likely to lower rates to kill. The third example talks about Humanitarian Revolution, with the occurrence Enlightenment. Judicial widely the abolition of torture. The fourth example talks about The World War. At the end of world war ii, we got a long-term peace in return. The developed countries stopped fighting each other. Instead of pointing to the development of democracy, a political scientist, trade and international organizations - all these statistical evidence reduce the likelihood of conflict. They also credit the magnificent life valuations rise - a hard-won lessons of the two world wars. The fifth example talks about the world into a whole. Ewing, on the other hand, claims that violence has itself in various ways in modern society. He points out that there are violent Pinker didn't mention. For example, rape, attack, bullying - all the way, the human violence between each other. He continues to point out that the violence now doesn’t fall. He dismisses Pinker that business is a new source of violence by stating facts created violence in South Africa diamond trade. In my opinion, in an environment of violence, it is essential to remember that today's violence has declined compared with the past due to the development of human civilization. On human psychology, often there are all kinds of contradictions, for this ambivalence is reflected in the violent attitude. On the one hand, people loathe violence, hate violence. Because violence not only is bound to damage of the normal social order, also causing ten million people deaths and property losses, and even make the social development to a standstill and even backwards. But, on the other hand, people are advocating violence, and even the world conqueror that use violence as a hero, a great man. Alexander, Caesar, Genghis khan and Napoleon are not only the heroes of many people, even Hitler and Mussolini, Hideki Tojo these warmongers also have some people worshipped! It is because the worship of the violence, human beings always put the "violence" as the main way to resolve conflict, the war as the main way of settling international disputes. In today's world the prevalence of terrorism, particularly the worship of violence to the extreme, make its activity ubiquitous, everywhere, that makes everyone lost a sense of security, and shivering in the shadow of the shadow of terrorism!

If so, then, what is violence? Engels's answer is: "violence is the state power, is also a kind of economic power." Engels, in my opinion, this definition is too narrow, violence is not only a state power, and violence is not merely a kind of economic power. Broadly, the violence is a kind of force applied to others. In my opinion, the so-called violence comes in many forms, and with different properties. Generally speaking, violence can be divided into the following kinds: The first is a personal violence, such as individual, the fight between the family violence, and so on. This violence is often accidental, and thus higher rate. The second is gang violence, that is, a group of coercive power to others. Gang violence although direct link with the underworld organization, but is not limited to the underworld organizations; Made up of "brothers" between gangs to threats, beatings and so on violence to others, or the fight between each other, belong to the gang violence. This kind of violence, not only has the accidental, and there is also premeditation. And the third is the group or organization violence, planning violent group made of the violence. This kind of violence, not only exists in terrorist organizations, including all aimed at to violent overthrow of the regime's revolutionary organizations. These groups by violence, usually organized, premeditated, action is also very hidden, so very difficult to prevent, but also has a great destructive power. The fourth is to state violence. Such violence can be divided into two kinds: {1} political violence, that the state through certain policies, regulations, mandatory measures are taken to the public, and make them have to accept the control; {2} military violence, that is, through the war and external expansion, to conquer other countries or nationalities. I was read a book “Violence can change the history of the development process” when I in the junior high school. This let myself to have a new understanding of violence. It is well known that the presence of the slaves although early, but it didn't become a slave system. These become slaves or prisoners of war. Many in the temple, in the king's house, or in their clan aristocracy home work, and not to engage in productive labor, so there would be no formation of a slave system of economy and society. Only when the coming of serfs, a new kind of slavery began to appear in the human society.

How to form this kind of slavery? That is the role of violence. It is well known that among the tribal society, although the "inferior man" has emerged, exploitation, also emerge in the but not institutionalized. When a certain tribe started strongly outward expansion, the other tribes got conquered. Although the conqueror became master of the conqueror, and took possession of their land. Conquerors, however, does not use the land, but still by its original as ethnic farming land owners; They were bound in land, not free to leave; And they have to pay the tribute to the conqueror. As a result, the serf system is not the inevitable result of economic and social development. On the contrary, it relys on violence and build up a system of human society.

After entering the country's social, in fact, many countries of serfdom, apparently because these countries are built on the basis of conquest and conquered the; And be the conqueror can succumb to the conqueror, no doubt, rely on is violence. If so, we can't say, of course, in any case is decided to political economy, more can't say that "violence is also a kind of economic power. Instead, usually is the condition of the economy is just one of the reasons that cause violence, but not all of them the reason, because of expanding land, property, captive population is one of the reasons, but more important is: for ordinary people, it is the opportunity to acquire wealth, also showing that personal bravery, the strong place; While for leaders is to show his power, his strong, thus make oneself can not only gain the respect of the people, but also can even make himself famous. So here, it is a political decision to economy. Needless to say, political in the sense that there is, of course, means to obtain and maintain the rule by violence.

Work cited
1. Pinker, Steven. "Violence Vanquished." American Now. Ed. Robert Atwan
10th ed.New York/Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2013. Print.
2. Ewing, Jacob. "Steven Pinker and the Question of Violence." American Now.
Ed. Robert Atwan10th ed. New York/Boston: Bedford/St. Martins. 2013. Print.

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