Industrial Relations – The Definitions and Main Aspects
* Industrial relations has become one of the most delicate and complex problems of modern industrial society.
* Industrial progress is impossible without cooperation of labors and harmonious relationships.
* Therefore, it is in the interest of all to create and maintain good relations between employees (labor) and employers (management).
“Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”.
History Of Industrial Relations
Industrial relations has its roots in the industrial revolution which created the modern employment relationship by spawning free labor markets and large-scale industrial organizations with thousands of wage workers. Institutionally, industrial relations was founded by John R. Commons when he created the first academic industrial relations program at the University of Wisconsin in 1920. As society wrestled with these massive economic and social changes, labor problems arose. Low wages, long working hours, monotonous and dangerous work, and abusive supervisory practices led to high employee turnover, violent strikes, and the threat of social instability. In Europe, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The labour movement was active in the early to mid 19th century and various labour parties were formed throughout the industrialised world.
The works of Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx led to the formation of the first Communist International whose policies were summarized in theCommunist Manifesto. Throughout the world, action by the labour movement has led to reforms and workers' rights, such as the two-day weekend, minimum wage, paid holidays, and the achievement of the eight-hour day for many workers.
Objectives of Industrial Relation
1. To safeguard the interest of labor and management who are participate in the process of production is being securing the highest level of mutual understanding and goodwill among all those sections in the industry. 2. To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations, which are an essential factor in the productivity of workers and the industrial progress of a country. To eliminate, as far as is possible and practicable, strikes, lockouts and gathers by providing reasonable wages, improved living and working conditions, said fringe benefits. 3. To raise productivity to a higher level in an era of full employment by lessening the tendency to high turnover and frequency absenteeism. 4. To establish and nurse the growth of an Industrial Democracy based on labor partnership in the sharing of profits and of managerial decisions, so that ban individuals personality may grow its full stature for the benefit of the industry and of the country as well. 5. To establish government control of such plants and units which are running at a loss or in which productions has to be regulated in the public interest. In fact the subsidy is to provide for stable of the productions. It is necessary for mankind.
INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS PROGRAMME:
A successful industrial relations programme reflects the personnel viewpoint, which is influenced by three main considerations: a) Individual thinking: Individualized thinking makes if imperative for the administrator to consider the entire situation in which the affected individual is placed.
b) Law and Policy awareness: The Law and Policy awareness underscores the idea of the consistency of treatment and the precedent value which management takes decision. Other part, the union leader should know the implications of such laws and policy for the employees.
c) Far sight of the expected reaction of group: while expected group reaction balances what we know of human nature in groups against an individual’s situation in the light of the policy that has been formulated and...
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