Engineering Discipline Department of CN
Higher Diploma in Civil Engineerning
Programme Code: EG114101
Sustainability and Engineering Profession
Site Formation of Kai Tak
Final Group(2) Report
27th April 2015
CHAN CHI WAI
5.Engineering solutions for sustainability12
5.1 Air quality12
5.2 Noise Impact16
Our project title is Site Formation of Kai Tak . KaI Tak is a large Hong Kong urban development plan after Hong Kong International Airport moved from Kowloon City (Kai Tak Airport) to Chek Lap Kok in July 1998. It is an old airport site
For the project, we would focus in the sustainability development. The project would be indicated the existing problem and proposed the useful and efficient method and direction of development in further.
The sustainability research would be focused in economy, social and environmental. This project would be proposed feasible engineering solution include Air Quality, Noise Impact, Construction Phase Water Quality Impact, Landscape and Visual Impacts and Waste.
Because of the area of the Kai Tak Development is too large, the research scope of project would be narrowed in specified area. The feasibility of proposal could be more accurate.
Kai Tak was located on the west side of Kowloon Bay in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is surrounded by rugged mountains.
The Kai Tak Airport was the international airport of Hong Kong until 6 July 1998, which was replaced by the new Hong Kong International Airport at Chek Lap Kok. After closure, the airport site has been occupied by various temporarily uses such as public fill banks, bus depots, car sales exhibitions, and recreational grounds. Besides, most of the original buildings and structures within the former airport site have been cleared and the ground contamination identified at the north apron had been decontaminated.
The Project is located in the south-eastern part of Kowloon Peninsula, comprising the apron and runway areas of the former Kai Tak Airport and existing waterfront areas at To Kwa Wan, Ma Tau Kok, Kowloon Bay, Kwun Tong and Cha Kwo Ling. It covers a land area of about It covers the land about 10,000 square meters.
2. Economic growth
Lower density residential development with commercial destinations will provide the catalyst for urban renewal and complement higher density development in surrounding areas. By maximizing public access to the entire waterfront, both economic and social value will be enhanced.
The new terminal facilities will become an important tourism infrastructure for Hong Kong. It would help diversify our tourism products, enhancing our attractiveness to tourists from different market segments, including the high-end market. The government projects that the Kai Tak Cruise Terminal will generate 75% financial benefits to HK and the total value-added contribution to the economy would be HK$860 million to HK$1.09 billion.4 Also with the multiplier effect, which is 2.5 to 3 in Hong Kong, if tourists spend HK$100 million dollars, this would add HK$300 million to Hong Kong’s Gross Domestic Product.4 In terms of employment, the government plans to develop tourism- related facilities such as hotels, shopping malls, conference facilities, etc. nearby the cruise terminal to increase competition.5 This will generate 6,900 to 10,900 job opportunities by 2020.5 Not only will the port bring benefits to Hong Kong, with close partnership between the Tourism Commission and regions such as Shanghai, Singapore and Thailand, cruise excursion itineraries in 2013 could include attractions of Hong Kong and nearby ports.6 Some officials were skeptic about the benefits brought by the terminal. In 2008, the Hong Kong Tourism Board recorded a HK$57 million dollar spending from cruise passengers, but it only equated a spending of HK$73 per head.9 People were unwilling to spend their money in Hong Kong because cruise lines are...
3. Social well-being
In terms of society and social infrastructure, the residential neighbourhood at KTD is proposed to enhance living space and meeting the housing demand of the territory. In the meantime, the public rental housing waiting time is expected to get worse without the timely implementation of the committed public housing projects in Kai Tak to tally with the housing provision programme.
The proposed KTD is expected to act as a catalyst for urban regeneration of the surrounding districts such as Kowloon City, San Po Kong, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong. It would also improve the landscape and urban design quality of the area, provide numerous community facilities to meet the needs of a diversity of user groups, preserve and promote the cultural heritage and identity of the place, promote a vibrant and accessible harbor front, and promote sports and cultural development in Hong Kong.
People-oriented – Kai Tak is planned to serve the public. The waterfront areas are reserved mainly for public enjoyment as parks and promenades. Convenient and comfortable pedestrian connections between the hinterland and Kai Tak, and between the SCL Kai Tak Station and the various activity nodes are emphasized. Example: Environmentally Friendly Linkage System (EFLS) - enhancing connectivity An elevated rail-based EFLS independent of ground level traffic congestion to guarantee the efficient and reliable service is proposed under the preliminary feasibility study for the sustainable development of the CBD. It can also become an iconic element of the district’s branding and visual identity.
The proposed EFLS is an elegant elevated 9-kilometre, 12-station monorail running on parallel tracks from the MTR Kowloon Bay Station through the Kai Tak Development, and across a new Kwun Tong Transportation Link (KTTL) above the entrance of the Kwun Tong Typhoon Shelter to the MTR Kwun Tong Station.
4. Environmental benifits
Residential, office, retail and hotel provisions are planned to mix with the sports and leisure activity nodes to ensure vibrancy in different times of the day and different days of the week. The history of Hong Kong and in particular the aviation history of Kai Tak will be manifested throughout Kai Tak and the heritage resources in the adjacent areas will also be promoted.
The formulation of solutions to the water pollution and soil contamination problems at KTAC without resorting to reclamation is to uphold the environmental-friendly and sustainable development principles. Besides, land reservation for roadside greening, green roof and district cooling system, and planning for mass transit, minimizing noise impact, and better air ventilation are all built into the planning framework. Example: District Cooling System at Kai Tak Development
2008-09 Policy Address pledged to implement a District Cooling System (DCS) at Kai Tak Development (KTD) to further promote energy efficiency and conservation and to reduce carbon dioxide emission substantially. DCS produces chilled water at central chiller plants and distributes the chilled water to user buildings through underground pipes for air-conditioning purpose.
Benefits of DCS
1. Better Utilization of Building Space
No chiller and heat rejection equipment plant space required. Also, only heat exchangers of much smaller size are to be installed. The space saved can be used for other purposes.
2. Benefits to the District Environment
It can eliminate noise & vibration arising from local chillers inside buildings, as well as nuisances to occupants & adjacent buildings from heat rejection equipment. Also, it can reduce ‘heat island’ effect of the district.
3. Savings in Electricity Consumption
Consumes 35% less electricity than air-cooled A/C system and 20% less electricity than water-cooled A/C system using cooling towers. Saving up to 85 million kWh per annum (and a reduction of 59,500 tonnes of carbon dioxide emission per annum) for the KTD, when fully developed
5. Engineering solutions for sustainability
5.1 Air quality
Air quality impact during the construction phase may arise from construction activities of the site formation works and construction traffic. Construction activities that contribute to air pollution include: land clearing, operation of diesel engines, demolition, burning, and working with toxic materials. All construction sites generate high levels of dust (typically from concrete, cement, wood, stone, silica) and this can carry for large distances over a long period of time. Construction dust is classified as PM10 - particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter, invisible to the naked eye. Research has shown that PM10 penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause a wide range of health problems including respiratory illness, asthma, bronchitis and even cancer. Another major source of PM10 on construction sites comes from the diesel engine exhausts of vehicles and heavy equipment. This is known as diesel particulate matter (DPM) and consists of soot, sulphates and silicates, all of which readily combine with other toxins in the atmosphere, increasing the health risks of particle inhalation.
Diesel is also responsible for emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. Noxious vapors from oils, glues, thinners, paints, treated woods, plastics, cleaners and other hazardous chemicals that are widely used on construction sites, also contribute to air pollution.
Sources of air pollution (construction dust):
Dust can become airborne when soil is exposed or left uncovered. Wind then picks up the exposed soil and carries it off-site. The most common ways that soil is exposed include:
Site preparation activities;
Vehicle movement; and
Dust generation is the main air quality issue associated with construction of the proposed CPT. Primary sources of dust may include excavation works, transporting soil and fill, wind from unsealed surfaces and stockpiles and demolition works.
Periods of prolonged rainfall or heavy downpours may increase the risk of erosion and subsequent sedimentation of local waterways. Similarly, periods of dry and windy weather may increase the potential for dust to be generated from construction activities.
Types of construction dust:
This is a general term used to describe different dusts that you may find on a construction site. There are three main types: Silica dust: Created when working on silica-containing materials like concrete, mortar and sandstone, Wood dust: Created when working on softwood, hardwood and wood-based products like MDF and plywood; Lower toxicity dusts: Created when working on materials containing very little or no silica. The most common include gypsum, limestone, marble and dolomite.
Dust legislation and guidance:
Air quality impacts will require mitigation in line with the air pollution control (construction dust) regulations (under the APC). Environmental monitoring and audit report for dust is recommended at the site boundary as a proactive measure and to ensure that the dust criteria will not be exceeded and local nuisances do not arise.
To reduce the air pollution caused by particulate emissions from diesel vehicles and keep the particulate emissions of these vehicles under effective control, the Air Pollution Control (Emission Reduction Devices for Vehicles) Regulation requires the vehicles to be properly installed with approved particulate reduction devices.
Dust control with demolition of buildings:
The area at which demolition work takes place shall be sprayed with water or a dust suppression chemical immediately prior to, during and immediately after the demolition activities so as to maintain the entire surface wet; For any wall of the building to be demolished that abuts or fronts upon a street, service lane or other open area accessible to the public, impervious dust screens or sheeting shall be used to enclose the whole wall to a height of at least 1 m higher than the highest level of the structure being demolished; Any dusty materials remaining after a stockpile is removed shall be wetted with water and cleared from the surface of roads or streets;
Climate poses an obvious problem for construction works. This is particularly evident during periods of dry, windy weather when the likelihood of dust being picked up and blown about is increased.
While climate cannot be controlled, three things can be done to minimize climate-generated dust problems: Check weather reports daily; closely observe weather patterns to enable action to be taken immediately if conditions change Implement control measures that ensure dust problems do not occur while the site is unattended; Adopt a site ‘shut down and cover up’ policy during periods of extreme weather conditions, (high winds and low humidity). All site operations should cease and all exposed areas covered or treated to ensure dust does not become airborne
The appropriate reduction measures for the construction works.
Statutory control of dust emissions from construction (demolition) works requires appropriate dust control measures to be implemented during the construction stage in accordance with the requirements in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation. Wheel washing facilities shall be provided at the site exit and these facilities shall regularly be maintained to ensure proper functioning and efficient operation at all times. Cover any dusty load on vehicles before they leave the site. All concrete structures and slabs to be demolished shall be damped with water spray prior to and during the demolition works. Wet by water spraying on any dusty materials before loading and unloading, stockpile of dusty materials, area where demolition, work excavation or earth moving activities are carried out and any unpaved main haul road. The enclosed cleaning workshop within the Material Recovery/Recycling Facility (MRRF) building shall be provided with forced ventilation and maintained with a negative pressure. The exhaust air should be cleaned with a High Efficiency Particulate Air filter prior to discharging to the atmosphere. Provide hoarding of not less than 2.4m high from ground level along the site boundary which is next to a road or other public area and effective dust screens, sheeting or netting to enclose any scaffolding built around the perimeter of a building. Properly treat any exposed earth, such as by compacting or hydro seeding, within 6 months after the last construction activities. Using the measures and requirements in the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation, the dust nuisance to the surrounding air sensitive receivers can be minimized.
With the adoption of appropriate dust suppression measures, construction dust is unlikely to cause significant adverse impacts on surrounding sensitive receivers. Effective and adequate dust suppression measures could be ensured during the whole site formation period by the observation of the Air Pollution Control (Construction Dust) Regulation.
5.2 Noise Impact
This section introduces potential impact and measurement to reduce the consequence that may arise from construction activities of site formation works and construction traffic. Government Legislation and Standards
The Environmental Impact Assessment Ordinance (EIAO) (Cap. 499) and NCO(Noise Control Ordinance)provides guidelines and noise standard for estimate the construction noise impacts. General construction works under the EIAO, potential noise impact arising from general construction works during normal working hours (07:00 to 19:00 hrs on any day not being a sunday or public holiday) at the operable windows of buildings must be assessed in accordance with the noise criteria specified in the EIAO-TM. The ordinance limited the project process time that can effectively reduce the noise pollution to the people around the site. Construction noise is controlled under the Noise Control Ordinance (NCO) and its subsidiary regulations. The NCO provides a statutory control on the noise from general construction work between 7p.m. to 7a.m. and on general holidays (including Sundays) by means of construction noise permits. For general construction work involving the use of Powered Mechanical Equipment (PME) other than percussive piling, the NCO standard are contained in the Technical Memorandum on Noise from Construction Work other than Percussive Piling and the Technical Memorandum on Noise from Construction Work in Designated Areas.
Potential Source of Impact
The likely noise impact arising from the site formation are related to operation of plants and vehicles .Debris storage will be temporary and waste material would be taken-off sites as soon as possible. Prediction of Noise Impact
Since we will use some kind of plant such as bulldozer. It is easily to over the government standard. Mitigation of the minimal
To protect residents affected by noise, we need to set up different measurement to minimize the impacts. a. A buffer distance may be inserted between the road and the buildings, or screening structures such as roadside barriers may be incorporated where practicable. b. Use some machine which produce less noise such as hydraulic crusher 3. Should not overlook the noise created by machine so we can place some cushion under machine while operation. c. Whenever feasible, schedule different noisy activities (e.g., blasting and earthmoving) to occur at the same time since additional sources of noise generally do not add a significant amount of noise. That is, less-frequent noisy activities would be less annoying than frequent less-noisy activities. d. Use explosives only within specified times and at specified distances from sensitive wildlife or streams and lakes, as established by federal and state agencies e. All equipment should have sound-control devices no less effective than those provided on the original equipment. Muffle and maintain all construction equipment used. f. Limit noisy activities (including geothermal well drilling) to the least noise-sensitive (non-sleeping) times of day (weekdays only between 7 a.m.
Use of closed grab dredger during dredging and filling operations. Deployment of silt curtains at appropriate dredging areas, and installation of silt screens at selected seawater intakes during dredging. Avoid maintenance dredging for cruise terminal in wet season.
Landscape and Visual Impacts
Compensatory tree planting should be incorporated into the proposed projects where trees are affected.
Tall buffer screen tree / shrub / climber planting, vertical green and roof greening where appropriate should be incorporated to soften hard engineering structures and facilities.
Sensitive streetscape design should be incorporated along all new roads to reflect the new urban development in Kai Tak.
Structure and ornamental tree planting should be provided along roadside amenity strips and central dividers to enhance the townscape.
This section identifies the types of wastes that are likely to be generated when carrying out of the Project and evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may result from these wastes.
Wastes arising from the Project are mainly from activities in the dredging and filling process. The options for waste minimization, recycling, treatment, storage, collection, transport and disposal of waste have been examined.
Classification of Waste
The dredging and filling activities to be carried out for the proposed Project would generate a variety of wastes that can be divided into distinct categories based on their composition and ultimate method of disposal. The identified waste types include: Construction and Demolition (C&D) materials;
Each type of waste arising is described below, together with an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with generation, handling, storage, transport and disposal of the waste.
Construction and Demolition Material
Construction and demolition (C&D) material would be generated from excavation works. However, the C&D material should be re-used on-site as far as possible to minimize the net amount of C&D material generated from the Project. Most of the C &D materials can become general fill materials. Therefore, most of the C&D waste which was generated from excavation works can use in filling process to minimize the C&D waste dispose to landfills.
The construction workforce would generate refuse comprising food scraps, waste paper, empty containers, etc. Such refuse should be properly managed so intentional or accidental release to the surrounding environment does not occur. Disposal of refuse at sites other than approved waste transfer or disposal facilities shall be prohibited. Effective collection of site wastes would be required to prevent waste materials being blown around by wind, flushed or leached into the marine environment, or creating an odour nuisance or pest and vermin problem. Waste storage areas should be well maintained and cleaned regularly. With the implementation of good waste management practices at the site, adverse environmental impacts are not expected to arise from the storage, handling and transportation of workforce wastes.
The maintenance and servicing of construction plant and equipment may generate chemical wastes such as cleaning fluids, solvents, lubrication oil and fuel. Maintenance of vehicles may also involve the use of a variety of chemicals, oil and lubricants. It is difficult to quantify the amount of chemical waste that will arise from the construction activities since it will be dependent on the Contractor’s on-site maintenance requirements and the amount of plant utilised. However, it is anticipated that the quantity of chemical waste, such as lubricating oil and solvent produced from plant maintenance, would be small and in the order of a few cubic meters per month. For the disposal of chemical wastes, the Contractor would be required to register with the EPD as a Chemical Waste Producer and to follow the requirements stated in the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labelling and Storage of Chemical Wastes.
Chemical waste arising during the construction phase may pose environmental, health and safety hazards if not stored and disposed of in an appropriate manner as stipulated in the Waste Disposal (Chemical Waste) (General) Regulations. The potential hazards include:
Toxic effects to workers;
Adverse impacts on water quality from spills;
Waste Reduction Measures
Good management and control can prevent the generation of a significant amount of waste. Waste reduction is best achieved at the planning and design stage, as well as by ensuring the implementation of good site practices. Recommendations to achieve waste reduction include:
Segregation and storage of different types of waste in different containers, skips or stockpiles to enhance reuse or recycling of materials and their proper disposal Encourage collection of aluminium cans by providing separate labeled bins to enable this waste to be segregated from other general refuse generated by the workforce In addition to the above measures, specific mitigation measures are recommended below for the identified waste arising to minimise environmental impacts during handling, transportation and disposal of these wastes.
Construction and Demolition Material
In order to minimise impacts resulting from collection and transportation of C&D material for off-site disposal, the excavated material generated from site formation works should be reused on-site as backfilling material as far as practicable. The surplus excavated material should be disposed of at the designated public fill reception facility, as agreed with the Secretary of the Public Fill Committee, for other beneficial uses. General Refuse
General refuse should be stored in enclosed bins or compaction units separate from C&D material. A reputable waste collector should be employed by the contractor to remove general refuse from the site, separately from C&D material. Preferably an enclosed and covered area should be provided to reduce the occurrence of 'wind blown' light material. Chemical Waste
If chemical waste is produced at the construction site, the Contractor would be required to register with the EPD as a chemical waste producer and to follow the guidelines stated in the Code of Practice on the Packaging, Labeling and Storage of Chemical Wastes. Good quality containers compatible with the chemical wastes should be used, and incompatible chemicals should be stored separately. Appropriate labels should be securely attached on each chemical waste container indicating the corresponding chemical characteristics of the chemical waste, such as explosive, flammable, oxidizing, irritant, toxic, harmful, corrosive, etc. The Contractor shall use a licensed collector to transport and dispose of the chemical wastes, to either the approved Chemical Waste Treatment Centre, or another licensed facility. Conclusion
Waste types generated by the construction activities are likely to include C&D material (from excavation works), general refuse from the workforce, and chemical waste from the maintenance of construction plant and equipment. Provided that these wastes are handled, transported and disposed of using approved methods and that the recommended good site practices are strictly followed.
The Project is to redevelop the former Kai Tak Airport Area.
For economic growth, lower density residential development with commercial destinations will provide the catalyst for urban renewal and complement higher density development in surrounding areas. By maximizing public access to the entire waterfront, both economic and social value will be enhanced. The new terminal facilities will become an important tourism infrastructure for Hong Kong. It would help diversify our tourism products, enhancing our attractiveness to tourists from different market segments, including the high-end market.
About social well-being, In terms of society and social infrastructure, the residential neighborhood at KTD is proposed to enhance living space and meeting the housing demand of the territory. In the meantime, the public rental housing waiting time is expected to get worse without the timely implementation of the committed public housing projects in Kai Tak to tally with the housing provision programmed
For environmental benefits, residential, office, retail and hotel provisions are planned to mix with the sports and leisure activity nodes to ensure vibrancy in different times of the day and different days of the week. The history of Hong Kong and in particular the aviation history of Kai Tak will be manifested throughout Kai Tak and the heritage resources in the adjacent areas will also be promoted.
For air Quality Impact, the major potential air quality impact during the construction phase of the Project will be dust arising from various construction activities including haul road emissions, open site erosion, and excavation and filling activities. Also, vehicle would carry out dust from site so vehicle washing facilities should be provided at every vehicle exit point. Furthermore, every main haul road should be scaled with concrete and kept clear of dusty materials or sprayed with water so as to maintain the entire road surface wet. For noise impact, Use of quiet equipment and movable/temporary noise barriers grouping to minimize construction noise impact. The exhaust of the ventilation system and any opening of the building should be located facing away from any NSR. Louver or other acoustic treatment equipment could also be applied to the exhaust exit of the building
About Construction Phase Water Quality Impact, use of closed grab dredger during dredging and filling operations. Deployment of silt curtains at appropriate dredging areas, and installation of silt screens at selected seawater intakes during dredging. Avoid maintenance dredging for cruise terminal in wet season. For Landscape and Visual Impacts, compensatory tree planting should be incorporated into the proposed projects where trees are affected. Tall buffer screen tree / shrub / climber planting, vertical green and roof green where appropriate should be incorporated to soften hard engineering structures and facilities. Structure and ornamental tree planting should be provided along roadside amenity strips and central dividers to enhance the townscape.