Central Institute of Educational Technology, NCERT, New Delhi
State Institute of Education, Chandigarh
Educational Technology Lecture Series
February 27, 2009
USE OF ICT IN TEACHING – LEARNING & EVALUATION
Prof. D N Sansanwal
Ex Director, School of Education
Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore
USE OF ICT IN TEACHING – LEARNING & EVALUATION
Gurukul System of Education was in vogue in India. The main characteristics of Gurukul System were dedicated and knowledgeable teachers, individualized and learner centre teaching, and self-motivated students eager to learn. This system changed due to increase in number of students. Consequently, the number of teachers increased. Some teachers are born but rests of them have to be given rigorous training so as to develop required competency to become a teacher. Teachers have been conscious about the quality of their teaching. To enhance the quality, some teachers use teaching aids, like, charts, models – static & working, specimen, slides, etc. because teachers are given training both in preparation and use of Audio-visual Aids. It is a known fact that majority of schools do not have appropriate teaching aids related to the school content. So teachers have no facility to use A – V Aids during teaching. The use of A – V Aids get further restricted due to unmotivated persons becoming teachers. Central Government realized the need of improving quality of education through the use of Television wherein most competent teacher teaches the topic with the help of most appropriate teaching aids. This helped in improving the quality of teaching in schools having no teacher to teach the subject, less competent teacher, schools having poor or no facility of teaching aids, etc. Programmes offered through television were produced by different State Institute of Educational Technology (SIET) in different languages. Even the Video Instructional Materials were produced and made available to teachers; still majority of schools did not make use of them. Some of the reasons were no facility of TV and VCR, no electricity, TV and VCR not in working condition, not incorporated in the time table, lack of initiation on the part of teacher and Principal, etc. Along with A – V Aids, the print media has to go a long way in improving the quality of teaching and learning. Format in which the textbooks were written was not beneficial for teachers and students. Researchers started thinking and using different Theories of Learning for developing Instructional Material. This gives birth to Programmed Learning Material based on Operant Conditioning Theory of Learning. Programmed Learning Materials were compared with that of Lecture Method or Conventional Method. Programmed Learning Material alone as well as in combination with other methods for teaching different subjects was found to be effective in terms of achievement of students (Bhushan, 1973; Dewal, 1974; Pandya, 1974; Shitole, 1976; Kuruvilla, 1977; Patel, 1977; Sodhi, 1977; Verma, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mullick, 1979; Parlikar, 1979; Shah, 1979; Pandey, 1980; Seshadri, 1980; Shah, 1980; Trivedi, 1980; Inamdar, 1981; Man, 1981; Mavi, 1981; Suthar, 1981; Davies, 1982; Ravindranath, 1982; Menon, 1984; Choudhary, 1985; Gautam, 1986; Joshi, 1988; Thaker, 1993; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; Pandit, 2003; Dubey, 2004 & Kaur, 2005). PLM was found to be as effective as Structured Lecture Method in terms of achievement of students (Chandrakala, 1976; Govinda, 1976). Lecture Method was found more effective than Demonstration Method and Programmed Learning Method (Ghetiya, 1999). Also students expressed favourable opinion towards PLM (Govinda, 1976; Chauhan, 1973; Kuruvilla, 1977; Sansanwal, 1978; Mavi, 1981; Davies, 1982; Menon, 1984; Agashe, 1995; Shah, 2002; and Kaur, 2005). In addition to it, the developed...
References: 1. Agashe, L.: Evolving Programmed Learning Material for Ensuring Mastery in Biology for XI and XII Grades Students. Ph.D. (Edu.), Guru Nanak Dev University, 1995.
2. Ankney, B.R.: The use of Computer Aided Instruction with Educable Mentally Handicapped students. Implications for Administrative Decision making. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 3, 1987.
3. Bhushan, A.: An Experimental Study of a Linear Program in Educational Statistics for B.Ed. Student-Teachers. Ph.D. (Edu.), Meerut University, 1973.
4. Benson, C.T.: Effect of Computer Instruction in Finite Mathematics on Students Achievement and Attitude. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No. 9, 1989.
5. Bonk, et al.: The effects of Generative and Evaluative Computerized Prompting Strategies on the development of Children’s Writing Awareness and Performance. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No. 3, 1989.
6. Cates, et al.: Interaction of Timing of Feedback & Cognitive Levels in Computer Assisted Exercises for Accounting. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 6, 1988.
7. Chandrakala: An Experimental Study of Different Methods of Teaching Sanskrit Grammar to High School Classes. Ph.D. (Edu.), Himachal Pradesh University, 1976.
8. Chaudhary, M.: Preparation and Evaluation of Programmed Learning Material in Geography for the Secondary Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Avadh University, 1985.
9. Chauhan, S.S.: Developing a Programmed Text in Educational Psychology for B.Ed. Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Meerut University, 1973.
11. Cohen et al.: An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of two Methods for providing Computer Assisted Repeated Reading Training to Reading Disabled Students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 7, 1988.
12. Conlin et al.: The Impact of computer Assisted Instruction upon students Achievement in a magnet school. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No.93, 1989.
13. Cosmos, G. J.: A comparison of Computer Based Individualized Instruction with the Traditional Group Learning Method on the Arithmetic Performance of 11th and 12th Grade students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No.9, 1988.
18. Dewal, O.S.: A Study of Difficulties in Teaching English and Effectiveness of Programmed Teaching. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University, 1974.
19. Drexel, et al.: An experimental Comparison of Computer Assisted Instruction and Teacher centred instruction in English Grammar Collegiate Business Communication. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No. 8, 1989.
20. Driscoll, R.E.: A comparison of the relative effectiveness of Micro Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Instruction for the teaching of reference skills to seventh grade students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No. 8, 1990.
21. Dubey, C.: Study of Effectiveness of Educational Material Related to Indian National Heritage for the Students of Class VIII. Ph.D. (Edu.), University of Lucknow, 2004.
22. Edfelt, N.M.: Computer Assisted second Language acquisition : The Oral Source of Children at the computer in a cooperative Context. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1989.
23. Edward, B.J.: The Effects of a Computer Assisted Instruction Program using the constant time delay procedure to teach spelling of abbreviations to adolescents with mild learning handicaps. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No. 9, 1989.
24. Fillingim, et al.: The effects of Computer Assisted instruction on the development of cognitive and psychomotor learning in a beginning badminton unit. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No.11, 1989.
25. Gautam, P.: Development of Programmed Instruction in Linear and Branching Styles and Studying the Performance in Relation to Creative Thinking and Level of Aspiration. Ph.D. (Edu.), Himachal Pradesh University, 1986.
28. Hayes, H.C.: A study of the effects of Computer Assisted Instruction on the academic gains of selected students in a study metropolitan school district. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 4, 1987.
29. Hulick, J.L.: a study of comparing the Computer generated Presentation mode with the Traditional presentation Mode in teaching First year Latin. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 4, 1987.
30. Isler-Hamilies, J.: The effect of Instructional Method on Handicapped students’ Comprehension of specific music concepts: computer versus non-computer Instruction. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 50, No. 10, 1989.
31. Inamdar, J.A.: A Study of the Effectiveness of the Programmed Learning Strategy in the Subject of Mathematics for Standard VII in Relation to Some Psychological Correlates. Ph.D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1981.
32. Joshi, M.: A Study of the Effect of Test Anxiety and Intelligence on the Performance of High School Students in a Segment of Science, Following Programmed Introduction in Linear and Branching Styles. Ph.D. (Edu.), Himachal Pradesh University, 1988.
33. Karvelis, et al. The effect on elementary student achievement of computer assisted and computer managed instruction. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 9, 1988.
34. Kaur, M.: Evaluation of the Learning Materials Prepared for Neo-Literates in the Regional Resource Center, Chandigarh. Ph.D. (Edu.), Punjab University, 2005.
37. Lawson, et al.: Effects of Computer Assisted Mathematics Instruction on low achieving students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 7, 1988.
38. Legenhausen, E. I.: effectiveness of Instruction using a Microcomputer equipped with LOGO Microworlds on the acquisition of school readiness skills by preschool children. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 52, No. 6, 1991.
39. Man, B.S.: An Experimental Study of the Effect of Unit Tests on Retention Following Programmed Instruction Material in a Segment of Physics, Ph.D. (Edu.), Himachal Pradesh University, 1981.
40. Mavi, N.S.: Development of a Programmed Text in Physical Geography for High School Students, Ph.D. (Edu.), Kurukshetra University, 1981.
41. McNeely, E.A.: Computer Assisted Instruction: A Health Education Strategy for the older Adults. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 10, 1988.
42. McPherson, S.J.: The effects of Metacognitive strategy training with Computer Assisted Instruction for Vocabulary Acquisition by students with Learning Disabilities. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 52, No. 6, 1991.
43. Menon, M
44. Mullick, S.P.: An Inquiry into the Relative Effectiveness of Linear Style Book Format and Multi-Media Programs. Ph.D. (Edu.), South Gujarat University, 1979.
45. Oates, A.P.: A Comparison of the effects of Computer versus paper and Pencil Presentation Modes on the attributions and behaviours of learning Disabled and Normally Achieving students. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 8, 1988.
46. OECD (1987) quoted in Pillai, S. Swaminathan: Are Women Sustainable in Infotch Industry? In Papa, Regina and Shanmugasundaram, Y. (Eds.). Women & Emerging Technologies, British Council Division, British Deputy High Commission, Chennai, 1996.
47. Pandya, N.L.: A Study of the Effectiveness of Programmed Learning Strategy in Learning of Physics in X Class of Secondary Schools. Ph. D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1974.
48. Pandey, I.D.: Use of Programmed Instruction on Teaching Mathematics in Primary Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), Patna University, 1980.
51. Parlikar K.R.: A Study of Suitability of Programmed Learning in Home Science Education for Adolescent Girls. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1979.
52. Patel, A.D.: Development and Tryout of Auto-Instructional Programs in Units of Geometry for Class VIII and to Study its Effectiveness in the Context of Different Variables. Ph.D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1977.
53. Perkins, et al.: An effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on MEAP Mathematics Achievement and Attitudes towards mathematics and Computers in Grade four and seven. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 2, 1987.
54. Powell-Hart, B.L.: The Improvement of writing skills of College Freshmen through Computer Based Instruction. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 53, No. 1, 1992.
57. Sansanwal, D.N.: An Experimental Study in Programmed Learning for Teaching Research Methodology Course at M.Ed. Level. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1978.
58. Sansanwal, D.N.: Information Technology and Higher Education. UNIVERSITY NEWS, Vol. 38, No. 46, 2000.
59. Sansanwal, D.N.: Institute of Education, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 2005.
60. Sansanwal, D.N.: Institute of Education, Devi Ahilya University, Indore, 2006.
61. Sansanwal, D.N. and Dahiya,S.: C.R.College of Education, Rohtak, 2006.
64. Shah, I.K.: Developing a Teaching Strategy for the Course of Educational Evaluation at the B.Ed. Level and Studying its Effectiveness. Ph.D. (Edu.), M.S. University of Baroda, 1980.
65. Shah, J.D.: Preparation and Try-out of Programmed Learning Material Based on the two Units of Food and Nutrition of X Standard Science Textbook in Gujarat State. Ph.D. (Home Sc.), Gujarat Vidyapeeth, 2002.
66. Shah, S.G.: Development and Tryout of Multi-Media Package on Effective Questioning in the Context of Microteaching. Ph.D. (Edu.), South Gujarat University, 1979.
71. Suthar, K.S.: A Study of Performance on Programmed Learning Material in Relation to Some Psychological Characteristics. Ph.D. (Edu.), Sardar Patel University, 1981.
74. Trahan, M.F.: The effects of Computer Assisted Instruction on the Metacognitive Awareness and Reading Comprehension of average and Learning Disabled Readers. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 51, No. 1, 1989.
77. Verma, M.: The Effect of Schedules of Reinforcement and Extroversion on Programmed Instruction Achievement. Ph.D. (Edu.), Meerut University, 1977.
78. Ward, R.D.: Natural language, Computer Assisted Learning and Language Impaired children. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 10, 1987.
79. WBT Information Centre (1997). http://www.wbtic.com/primer-whatiswbt.aspx
80. Whitaker, D.F.: Comparison of Tutor Retrieval text, Computer Assisted Instruction, and Programmed Lecture in teaching Statistics to Physical Education Majors
81. Yates, et al.: An examination of the effectiveness of Computer Assisted versus Traditional Strategies for Tutoring students with reading difficulties in a University clinic. Dissertation Abstract International, Vol. 49, No. 8, 1988.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document