2. Some facts about adverbs
a) The definition of the adverb.
b) Adverbial Clauses.
c) Classification of the adverbs.
3. Some researches on the usage of adverbs in modern literature a) “The sky is falling” (2001). S. Sheldon. b) “Are you afraid of the dark?” (2004). S. Sheldon. 4. Sentence adverbs.
The aim of this research work is to study the peculiarities of the usage of adverbs in the Modern English language. The choice of this research is predetermined by the necessity to explore the usage of adverbs and not just their place in written English but their role in Modern Spoken English. The urgency of this research work consists of many things. For example, many modern students dream about working or studying abroad. So without studies of the peculiarities of the usage of this part of speech they can come across with misunderstanding. Besides, we can’t forget that the foreign languages faculty is one the most prestigious in the higher educational institutions. Not all languages use adverbs so widely but English does. It is clearly seen in such courses as “Matrix”, “Opportunities”, “Headway” and others. There are a lot of interesting and not typical cases of the usage of adverbs especially in spoken English. Despite the fact that we study adverbs at school, we need to know about this part of speech more to catch native speakers, to be properly understood by them, while traveling abroad or studying there, or communicating on the Internet. All these reasons have motivated us to study adverbs thoroughly. So, what do we know about adverbs? Not very much indeed. An adverb is a part of speech. It is any word that modifies any other parts of language: verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other verbs except for nouns; modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. An adverb may be a single word such as quickly, here or yesterday, or a phrase such as the day before yesterday or to see my mother. Adverbs typically answer the questions such as how, when, where, why and to what extent. This function is called the adverbial function, and realized not by just single words but by adverbial phrases and adverbial clauses. Adverbial clauses can contain a subject or a full verb. |Type |Question answered |Example | |Place |Where? |Wherever there are computers, there is | | | |Microsoft software. | |Time |When? |After the fruit is harvested, it is sold | | | |at the market. | |Cause |Why? (What caused this?) |I didn’t call her because I’m shy. | |Purpose |Why? (What was the reason for doing this?) |She took a computer course so that she | | | |could get a better job. | |Concession |Why is this unexpected? |Although Jay has a Master’s degree, he | | | |works as a store clerk. | |Condition |Under what conditions? |If you save your money, you will be able | | |...
Bibliography: • Eckardt R. Manner adverbs and information structure: Evidence from the adverbial modification of verbs of creation: - Stanford: CSLI Publications, 2000. – P. 359-371.
• Hewings M. Advanced Grammar in Use. – Cambridge University Press, 1999.
• Macmillion English Dictionary for Advanced Learners. – Oxford. 2002.
• Guide to Grammar and Writing. – http://ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/adverbs.
• Рассказова О.Ю. “Manner Adverbs in the Author’s Discourse”.
• Cinque, Gugliemo. 1999. Adverbs and functional heads – a cross linguistic perspective. Oxford: Oxford University press.
• Ernst, Thomas. 2002. The syntax of adjuncts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Haegeman, Liliane. 1995. The syntax of negation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
• Jackendoff, Ray. 1972. Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar. MIT Press.
• Freeman, Jan “Adverb is as adverb does”.
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