PAD 540 International Public Administrations
The first assignment addressed the September 11 terrorist attacks as well as how these attacks hampered United States of America’s foreign policy. This assignment addresses five main issues. The first section identifies the way in which transitional actors, interest groups, the media and public opinion influenced the chosen event which in this case is the terrorist attacks in 2001. The second section is the usage of an expected utility theory in order to analyze chosen events. The third one is determining as well as discussing the foreign policies or models that played a role in the event. The fourth discusses the role that international insecurity played in the development of the event. The fifth and last section analyzes the use of force in the event as well as an explanation whether it was justified. The assignment focuses majorly on the attacks that left over 3,000 people dead and scores of other people injured. There are several ways in which transnational actors, interest groups, public opinion as well as the media influenced the 9/11 U.S. terrorist attacks. Reading through several articles and journals that were developed after the attacks contributed to the choosing of this event. The media states that since the attacks, there have been several doubts raised on the mainstream occurrence of events. During the 10th anniversary commemorating the day research showed that the terrorist was and is still one of the most talked about and analyzed event. The internet has several articles attributed to the event. Interest groups on their part have not been left behind. These interest groups play a major role in sensitizing the government on the importance of security of its citizens. This has greatly sparked a remembrance of the 9/11 attacks by the terrorist group. Public opinion shows that several citizens still live in fear mainly because they think there will be a reoccurrence of the events (Falkenrath, 2004). The attack against the U.S. which is a superpower sparked interest among other countries who thought that the country had the ability to protect it and the citizens. This has greatly sparked interest among journalists and other researchers who want to find out what exactly happened prior to the event and after the event twelve years later on. Transnational relations on the other hand involve cross border interactions. These actors played a role in choosing the event. This was an event by a section of terrorists targeted against another country. This led to debates and these different involved countries and people debated on the events and what led to it. These debated surrounding the event led to choosing this event. They interview people asking them to recall what exactly happened and where they were thereby remembering the events once again. This is an event that has refused to fade in people’s minds and it is the main reason as to why people still talk about it to date. Journalists keep reviewing it over and over and this causes the event to be remembered by everyone this is why it was a chosen task for the assignment (Bodden, 2007). Choosing it also allows someone the ability to analyze the role that foreign policy plays and its importance. Use of theory in analyzing the event is important. Expected utility theory needs to be used in the analysis. An expected utility theory refers to a theory whereby there is a bet between people mainly in regard to specific outcomes that have been present. In this case it applies to risk aversion. It will explain the use of certain choices that contradicted the outcome and led to a terrorist attack. There are 9/11 advance forms of knowledge that make up conspiracy theories. These expected utility theories center mainly on arguments that specific individuals as well as institutions had specific foreknowledge concerning the occurrence of the...
References: ACHARYA, U. D. (2012). Denver Journal of International Law & Policy. INTERNATIONAL LAWLESSNESS, INTERNATIONAL POLITICS AND THE PROBLEM OF TERRORISM: A CONUNDRUM OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AND U.S. FOREIGN POLICY, 144-166.
Bodden, V. (2007). The 9/11 Terror Attacks. Mankato, MN: The Creative Company.
Brydon, S. (2004). Conference Papers -- International Communication Association. Dueling Prophets:The Return of Prophetic Dualism to Foreign Policy Rhetoric After September 11, 2001, 1-3.
Cameron, R. W. (2007). A Journal of Social & Political Theory. Self-discipline in a Time of Terror U.S. Foreign Policy and the U.S. Self, 74-101.
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Falkenrath, R. A. (2004). International Security. The 9/11 Commission Report: A Review Essay, 170-190.
Mead, W. R. (2002). Special Providence: American Foreign Policy and How It Changed the World . New York, NY: Routledge.
Morgan, P. M. (2006). International Security: Problems and Solutions. Thousand Oaks, CA: CQ Press.
Pillar, P. R. (2001). Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy. Massachusetts: Brookings Inst Pr.
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