The Urdu-English Controversy in Pakistan Author(s): Tariq Rahman Source: Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 1 (Feb., 1997), pp. 177-207 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/312861 . Accessed: 02/03/2011 04:06 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at . http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at . http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=cup. . Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com.
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Modern Asian Studies31, 1 (1997), pp. 177-207. Printed in Great Britain
The Urdu-English Controversy Pakistan in
TARIQ RAHMAN National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University
I. Introduction Pakistan is an ideologically inspired state and Urdu was a part of this ideology. During the development of Muslim separatism in British India it had become a symbol of Muslim identity and was the chief rival of Hindi, the symbol of Hindu identity (Brass, 1974: 11981.1 Thus, after partition it was not surprising that the Muslim 1 References to books and documents are given in the bibliography. Some frequently occurring references to magazines and newspapers are parenthetically embedded in the text. When the name of the publication is not given in full, the following abbreviations will identify it.
Dawn (Karachi), English daily. Jang (Karachi), Urdu daily. M Muslim (Islamabad), English daily. MN Morning News (Karachi), English daily. N Nation (Lahore), English daily. NW Nawai Waqt(Lahore), Urdu daily. PT PakistanTimes(Lahore), English daily. A Note on Transcription Commonly used names of people and places have been spelt as they are spelt either by the people themselves or in conventional contemporary English orthography (e.g. Bhutto, Lahore and Pakistan, etc.). The system given below, therefore, is only relevant for transliteration from Pakistani languages. The system is meant to give an approximate pronunciation and is not rigorously phonetic. In fact, phonetic symbols have not been used except to explain the sounds given by the Roman letters (and diacritical marks) given below. Letters representing sounds common to English and Urdu as well as combinations of sounds (such as diphthongs) have been excluded. International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Symbols /a:/ /e:/ as in /ze:/ (sea) /e/ /i./ Symbol Example Used a e e i i lo sharp German long 'e' as in /ze:/= sea short form of the above beat (ee) bit
? 1997 Cambridge University Press
League still considered it the unifying symbol for Pakistanis who belonged to different linguistic and ethnic groups. But Urdu was opposed by the supporters of Bengali even before the partition in 1937 when the delegates from Bengal opposed the idea of making Urdu the lingua franca of Muslim India in the Lucknow session of the League (Sayeed, 1968: 206). After partition the Bengali movement became highly politicized...
References: TARIQ RAHMAN
eral framework of the theory of elite rule (Pareto, 1935; Mosca, 1939; Mills, 1956), the controversy is seen as part of the conflict for power and resources between the ruling elite and the proto-elite
because they were lacking in strong organizational development ' (1979: 115). Since
which despised Bengali (Murshid, 1985: 131) also echoed the senti-
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