URBAN DESIGN AND CONSERVATION
1. Urban Design
The term “urban design” may have been coined in the mid-1950s but 20 years later it was still largely unused outside a small circle of people concerned with the four-dimensional development of precincts of cities. It has a wide, almost boundary-less definition with different connotations depending on professional discipline or the particular context within which the urban environment is being assessed. It is the process of making or shaping physical forms through cognitive perception (senses) (Arnheim, 1969)-it is not simply an intellectual process nor can it be. Design is not linear and constitutes a sensual engagement with reality (not virtual reality).
Elements of Urban design:
Urban Design involves the design and coordination of all that makes up cities and towns: a. Buildings,
b. Public spaces,
d. Transport and
Urban Design weaves together these elements into a coherent, organized design structure. The urban design structure defines the urban form and the building form. Design is also making of things through indirect or unintentional actions. It is the physical and geometric manifestation of underlying forces generated by human behavior and its interactions with the environment. The way you arrange your furniture in the living room to be “comfortable” is an act of design that has behind it significant underlying (cultural) forces and determinants (Hall, 1966).Consequently, as we approach design in our culture, we have basic approaches and conventions for interpreting human behavior and needs into design form.
People: need, want, aspiration, passion.
Program: what and how much of something satisfies the stated need. Context: bio-physical, cultural, jurisdictional, historic/time, interrelationships. Organization, structure, and process.
Design elements, principles, and relationships or compositions (art): space, enclosure, movement, and circulation.
Structure, manufacturing, and economy.
References and source: Urban Design.org.
Books: Jon Lang –
, Urban Design: A typology of procedures
and products, Ron Kasprisin - Urban Design, the composition of complexity.
4. Short notes:
a. URBAN SPRAWL: The uncontrolled expansion of urban areas.
Poorly planned development that spreads a city’s population over a wider and wider geographical area is called urban sprawl. As outlying areas become more populated, the land between them and the city fills in as well.
1. A Northern Virginia housing development encroaches on farmland. Population growth and relocation is threatening rural environments across the world.
Photograph by Sarah Leen Written by John G. Mitchell Republished from the pages of National Geographic magazine.
2. In the United States, urban sprawl is becoming a matter of increasing concern. From 1970 to 1990, people who worked in U.S. cities moved farther and farther from urban centers. The population density of cities in the United States decreased by more than 20 percent as people in cities moved to suburbs and outlying areas. About 30,000 square miles of rural lands were gobbled up by housing developments. For example, the population of the city of Chicago decreased during this period from 3.4 million people to 2.8 million. But the Chicago metropolitan area grew from about 7.0 million persons to 7.3 million.
CAUSES OF URBAN SPRAWL:
Sprawl occurs in metropolitan areas that allow unrestricted growth or that have no plans to contain it. Other factors include the widespread use of automobiles and the building of expressways. Example:
References and Source:
Unbelievable aerial photographs of Mexico City show how the urban landscape spreads over mountains while maintaining a remarkable 25,400 people per square mile. “In a megalopolis like Mexico City,” Mail, “the relationship between man and space is ever so apparent.www.pearlandisd.com” National geographic.com – By john...
References: and sources:
URBAN MORPHOLOGY, URBAN LANDSCAPE AND FRINGE BELTS.
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