Unit 8 P1 M2

Topics: Sigmund Freud, Psychology, Human behavior Pages: 11 (3137 words) Published: June 17, 2015


-Behaviourist Theory

Definition
Behavioural psychology, also known as behaviourism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviours are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. According to behaviourism, behaviour can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. Beliefs

Behaviourism is the train of through that all humans behaviour is a result of social learning from their environment. Behaviourist make there principle based on external behaviour for example body language. Another one of their beliefs is that we learn through social cues and through our environment and that’s what shapes the person we grow up to be.

Positive reinforcement
“In behaviourism positive reinforcement occurs when a reward, sometimes called a reinforcer, is given for a specific desired behaviour. Other behaviours, even those that are negative, are simply ignored. Over time, this will lead to an increase in the desired behaviour. “A stimulus which increases the frequency of a particular behavior using pleasant rewards. A doggy treat can pleasantly coerce your new puppy to sit (positive reinforcement) just as a pull to the choke collar can achieve the same affect (negative reinforcement). The difference is that the positive reinforcer is pleasant, but make sure you understand that both increase the frequency of the behavior

Negative reinforcement
With negative reinforcement the occurrence of a behavior is increased by removing an unpleasant stimulus. “For example, your dog can avoid being spanked when it sits in response to your command. If the dog has been getting spanked, not getting spanked is rewarding (removal of unpleasant stimulus) so the frequency of the behavior will increase.” People confuse negative reinforcement with punishment--just remember that with reinforcement you increase the occurrence of the behavior but punishment extinguishes a behaviour.

Key stages
1. When we are born our minds are blank.
2. Schema (blue print) when we go thought life we make schemas which help us live our lives. 3. No free will we are what we are because we have learn it. 4. Behaviourist believes that behaviour is all the same inhuman and animals therefore test on animals and make application.

Classical conditioning – Association we make relations between things. This principle argues that we make relationships between stimuli such as the sound of a bell and hunger or Friday with a relaxing sensation. Operant conditioning – This is the process of learning though reinforcement. This process is used in many ways such as when you swear as a child and you parents send you to the step. That is negative reinforcement so that the next time they we remember that its wrong. Studies

The participant in the experiment was a child that Watson and Rayner called "Albert B.", but is known popularly today as Little Albert. Around the age of nine months, Watson and Rayner exposed the child to a series of stimuli including a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, and masks and burning newspapers and observed the boy's reactions. The boy initially showed no fear of any of the objects he was shown. “The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer. Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise. After repeatedly pairing the white rat with the loud noise, Albert began to cry simply after seeing the rat.” Evaluate

Positive
Some of the points which this theory states you can link up to real life and you can see it when you think about it. One of the key stages says that we make mental blue prints which when you think about it you do , like when you get up in the morning you know what you are going to do because you have made a plan or a blue print. Another one of the key stages is that...


References: Cherry , Kendra , The Little Albert Experiment(online), Available from: ,http://psychology.about.com/od/classicpsychologystudies/a/little-albert-experiment.htm (Accessed:14 October 2013)
Cherry , Kendra , What Is the Genital Stage?(online) , Available from: http://psychology.about.com/od/gindex/g/def_genstage.htm (Accessed:17 October 2013)
Fritscher , Lisa (2009) , Positive Reinforcement(online), Available from: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/posreinforce.htm (Accessed: 19 October 2013)
Negative Reinforcement (online), Available from : http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Negative%20Reinforcement (Accessed: 19 October 2013)
Social Learning Theory(online), Available from: http://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Social%20Learning%20Theory (Accessed: 20 October 2013)
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