The psychodynamic theory:
It is based around three dynamic which are Food, Sex and water. This approach is based on the premise that human behaviour and relationships are shaped by conscious and unconscious influences. This was developed by Freud Sigmund. Conscious: consists of all the mental processes of which we are aware and what you want. For example, you may be feeling thirsty at this moment and decide to get a drink. Unconscious: this contains our biological based instincts for the original urge for sex. While we are fully aware of what is going on in the conscious mind, we have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind. Freud looked at the relationship between children and the opposite sex parents for example; a son may have a close relationship to the mother and if the child does not develop a relationship with the father this can lead to conflicts in the family. For example the father may feel jealousy towards the son. Another psychodynamic theory is Ericson who believed that unconscious conflicts exist throughout life not just in childhood. Fraud also discovered that there are three parts of a human personality which are: Id, Ego and Super ego.
Id: the Id consists of all inherited biological components of personality. The id is the impulsive (and unconscious) part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to the instincts. The personality of the newborn child is all Id and only later does it develop ego and super-ego. The id demands immediate satisfaction and when this happens we experience pleasure, when it is denied we experience ‘unpleased’ or pain. The id is not affected by reality, logic or the everyday world.
Ego: Initially the ego is “that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world”. The ego develops in order to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. Ideally the ego works by reason whereas the id is chaotic and totally unreasonable. The ego operates according to reality, working our realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands, often compromising or postponing satisfaction. Like the id, the ego seeks pleasure and avoids pain but unlike the id the ego is concerned with devising a realistic strategy to obtain pleasure. Often the ego is weak relative to the head-strong id and the best the ego can do is stay on, pointing the id in the right direction and claiming some credit at the end as if the action were its own. The ego has no concept of right or wrong; something is good simply if it achieves its end of satisfying without causing harm to itself or to the id.
Superego: this goes against the Id, The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection. The superego consists of two systems: which are conscious and ideal self. The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. For example, if the ego gives in to id demands, the superego may make the person feel bad though guilt. The ideal self is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people, and how to behavior as a member of society. Behavior which falls short of the ideal self may be punished by the superego through guilt. The super-ego can also reward us through the ideal self when we behave ‘properly’ by making us feel proud. If a person’s ideal self is too high a standard, then whatever the person does will represent failure. The ideal self and conscience are largely determined in childhood from parental values and you were brought up.
Erik Erikson, a German psychoanalyst heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud, explored three aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (the personal idiosyncrasies that distinguish a person from...
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