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unit 7 p1

By JAMSLDN Jan 21, 2015 1140 Words
In sociology there are seven main principal perspectives which are Functionalism, Marxism, Feminism, Interactionism, Postmodernism, Collectivism and New Right. Functionalism
In 1951, Talcott Parsons introduced the Functionalist view which studies the social structure as a whole of how it functions and how each social structure is important in the interests of society. Functionalism believes that humans and the society have some basic needs, institutions and governments may be responsible to meet the required needs also the functionalist may consider that they are different kinds of sources that may limit the individual’s behaviour within the chosen society, meaning that the society will behave appropriately based on someone's behaviour while having the same values, on the other hand the functionalist view does recognise that there may be errors or inequalities within the society but bearing in mind this can be functional for the society. Marxism

Marxism was introduced and studied by Karl Marx during 1818 and 1883. The Marxist view is based on the conflicts and interests of the society, it also strongly highlights on the importance of conflict in societies and communities. They also believe that economics are the bases of progressing and social life this can be achieved by struggling through social classes. The two classes that Marx discussed about were the Bourgeoisie and Proletariat. The Bourgeoisie class is a small powerful group who may have owned factories or own companies whereas the Proletariat is a poorer group of workers. The way a Marxists thinks is based on the financial structures and systems as well as social class meaning that these factors are vital in the Marxist view. Feminism

Feminism is based on the social experiences from a women’s point of view. Feminism looks at society from a viewpoint of males, making females visible within the society. Feminism has two main bases of roles which are, redressing the balance and study society from a female point of view and to explore women’s lives which often neglected by sociological studies. Pamela Abbott and Claire Wallace (1997) studied the feminism perspective including the concerns and criticisms of malestream sociology. There are different categories of feminism which study specific aspects of women in the society this includes Liberal feminism, Radical feminism and Marxist feminism. Liberal Feminism

Liberal feminism looks at the view of legal restrictions of women in the society. Some female members of the liberal feminism believe that changing attitudes and legislations there will be more equality and diversity in society. Liberal feminists consider that if they are improvements this will be resulted in the acts of legislations and policies. Radical Feminism

Radical feminism is a theory that focuses on the oppressive nature of patriarchy. Patriarchy Is a form of society in which men may be seen as being in authority, as power is passed from father to son. Radical feminism concentrates on the socialisation of women as housewives and mothers in the form of oppression while using the characteristic of the nuclear family life. Marxist Feminism

The Marxist sees feminism as a result of class inequality meaning females are oppressed by both Capitalism and men including the Patriarchal community. Marxist believe that women may produce the next generation of the working trade, also the Marxist feminists believe that females make the required needs for children physically, emotionally and socially meaning that they are ready to work away from home in the future. Marxist feminise says that the mother in the family is the head because without the mother the family will not be able to function and they won’t be someone responsible for the domestic life meaning that this is the primary responsibility of women. Interactionism

Interactionism is the key concept to understand the society by analysing the behaviours and actions of individuals in a small social group. Interactionism may debate that thoughts and actions may develop based on the types of interactions between the parties involved. Interactionism emphasis and believes that labelling is a method used in many occasions by those in authority also through using the process of labelling stereotypes are developed. Interactionism states that individuals are not just passive however the individual has a particular role within the society on the other hand, fails to understand the reason why some groups in society have the power to label and place constraints on other individuals. New right

New right was a theory that was formed and took place in the 1980s and 1990s which was powerful in shaping the social and economic policies. The New Right has had debates and discussions that the rising costs towards government of the welfare state were preventing economic growth and that the society become more independent on the state. Some may believe that traditional roles within the society may have been undermined by the liberal values during the 1960s and 1970s. The New Right states that a nuclear family is vital to the society and that their is a concern for the rise in numbers of same sex couples and single parents which may be viewed as a negative factor for the society. Post-modernism

Post-modernism focuses on the uncertain natures of societies. Modernism is viewed to be a time when study of the world was based on scientific and traditional matters. Post-modernism argues that the range of sociological perspectives may have been superseded due to the nature of society changing in modern advanced industrial societies it also studies the theories as having a part and having interesting views about society. Post-modernism argues that class identity is no longer a vital role in society as it was back in the day but states that there is a large number of factors that may influence people’s lives such as gender, age and ethnicity. Collectivism

Collectivism is set on the political beliefs where is stresses the importance of a collective society. Collectivists believe that collective goals are more significant than individual goals as the society has more value than separate individuals therefore each individual has a responsibility to each other individual. Collectivism mainly studies the importance of society and community while giving priority to group goals over individual goals. Welfare services are generally common and are provided by government funding meaning individuals within the society can expert their government to provide for them. Another way to view collectivism is having an approach to providing health and social care services that may be underpinned by commitment from government to offer care and support for the vulnerable which is funded by tax and National Insurance. The vulnerable audience may include children, older people, and people with physical impairments as well as those with mental health issues. The Beveridge Report (1942) provided the political foundation for a comprehensive range of welfare services. Lord Beveridge in the report of Social Insurance and Allied Services highlighted the five main “Giant Evils” that immediately needed to be challenged.

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