Principles of Sociological Perspectives
In this assignment I will be explaining the seven principles of sociological perspectives. I will be start with functionalism. Functionalism sees everyone working together to make our society a better place to be, live and learn in. All of the social institutions work together to give back to the society we live in. All institutions work together by using approaches of social control which is to deal with different groups or members to make sure that the society is functioning effectively (Stretch et al, 2010). George Murdock was born on the 11th May 1897, in Meriden. He graduated from Phillips Academy in 1915 and had an A.B. in American History at Yale University (NA, ND). George Murdock (1897-1985) studied families in small and large groups and found out that all of them had four vital functions which were: Sexual function which is to let sexual acts happen between a man and woman only. Reproduction which is for a man and woman to make a baby which can then help in society later on in life. Socialisation which is the parents teaching their children how to act/behave in society. Economic function which is that food, shelter and money had to be given to families (Stretch et al, 2010). Key theorists of functionalism:
Auguste Comte 1798-1857
Emile Durkheim 1985-1917
Talcott Parsons 1902-1979
One of the theorists Talcott Parson (1902-1979) thought the main parts of an institution was to: socialise individuals, ensure everyone understands the norms and values in their society and to make individuals behave in a manner that the society would want them to. He came to this conclusion because he understood it would make the society a better place to be in as everyone would be maintaining their roles. (Sarbjit Kaur, 2013) Functionalism has its good values however its bad points balance it out. For example, functionalism does not see gay relationships as acceptable. This can be difficult for those families that who are in a gay relationship. Another problem functionalism has is it does not see families that have divorces, step children, separations, deaths. As you can see this could be an issue because if families do have problems in society they will not get have much help as these problems are not well recognised within the society we live in. Another negative point is functionalism does not approach areas of conflict as there are many conflicts within societies. Functionalism looks at harmony and agreement with in institutions that have positive functions which work together efficiently for the good of everyone. Functionalism suggests we behave how society wants us to not how we want. Functionalism thinks we should all share the same believes in society as this will make us work well together if we all share the same beliefs, norms and values. But how is this possible when we all want and need different things? I will move on by talking about Marxism. Marxism was developed by Karl Marx (1818-1883). Like functionalism Marxism thinks we behaviour how society tells us not how we want. Marxism suggests that all families are servants to those people who have power (capitalist). Marxism suggests that families are there to produce children as it will help the society as they are giving something back to the community. For example when a child grows up they will enable themselves to have to good education which will lead them to achieving a respectable job that earns a worthy salary; this will mean they will be looking after the environment they live in. This will portray that society will be well balanced with those people who are unemployed. The good thing about Marxism is that it looks at the families that have a nuclear family, broken family and even if the parents are divorced and they have step children, unlike functionalism. The people who have power (capitalist) only wanted the rest of the economy to do things that made the society go further not down in poverty. An example...
References: Haworth, E., Higgins. H., Hoyle, H., Lavers, S and Lewis, C. (2010) Health and Social Care Level 2 BTEC first. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Stretch, B., Whitehouse, M. (2010). Health and Social Care Book 1 Level 3. Pearson Education Limited: Essex
Whiting, John W.M. (1986). “George Peter Murdock, (1987-1985)”. American Anthropologist 88 (3): 682-686.
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