Unit 4 Exercise 1: Guided Reading
1. What is the basic format for a proposal?
An introduction that defines a problem, stresses its importance, and offers a brief description of the proposed solution (the thesis). An analysis of the problem, discussing its causes, and its effects. A detailed plan that shows step by step how to solve the problem. A costs-benefits analysis that measures the benefits of the plan against its costs. A conclusion that looks to the future and stresses the importance of taking action. 2. Where are proposals used? Proposals are used mostly in businesses pitch new ideas. 3. What are the steps for inventing your proposal’s content? Inquiring: Defining the Problem
Inquiring: Analyzing the Problem
Researching: Gathering Information and Sources
Inquiring: Planning to Solve the Problem
Researching: Find Similar Projects
4. What are the three primary sources of information when writing proposals? Electronic and online sources: Web sites, CD-ROMs, listservs, television, radio, podcasts, videos, and blogs. Print sources: Books, journals, magazines, newspapers, government publications, reference materials, and microform/microfiche. Empirical sources: Personal experiences, field observations, interviews, surveys, case studies, and experiments. 5. What steps are involved with planning to solve the problem? Map Out Your Plan
Explore Each Major Step
Figure Out the Cost sand Benefit s of Your Plan
6. Why should the writer list the costs and benefits of the proposed plan? A good way to round out your argument is to discuss the costs and benefits of your plan. You want to show readers the two to five major benefits of your plan and then argue that these benefits outweigh the costs. 7. What steps should writers use to choose an appropriate style? Create an Authoritative Tone
Use Metaphors and Similes.
Pay Attention to Sentence Length
Minimize the Jargon
8. List three tips for designing your proposal. Three tips for designing your proposal are to create a look, use meaningful headings, and use list to highlight important points. 9. What four steps should a writer follow to revise and edit a proposal? Look for Inconsistencies in Content.
Get Rid of the Extra Stuff
Tweak the Design
Don’t Forget to Proofread!
1. What is the format for a report?
Executive summary or abstract that summarizes the major sections of the report. Introduction that defines a research question or problem and explains why it is important to the reader. The introduction clearly states the purpose and main point of the report, while offering background information on the topic. Methods section that describes how the research was carried out. Results or Findings section that presents the results of the research objectively. Discussion section that analyzes the results and explains what they mean. Conclusion/Recommendations that restates the main point of the report and offers specific recommendations. End Material: References that provides a list of references or works cited. Appendices that offer additional sources and other materials. 2. How do writers develop their research question and hypothesis? They start out by identifying the topic, angle, research question, and hypothesis. 3. What are the steps for creating a researching plan?
a) In the middle of the screen or page, write down your research question. b) Write down the two to five major steps you will need to take to answer that research question. Circle them. c) For each major step, write down two to five minor steps that you would need to take to achieve that major step. Circle them and draw lines to connect them to the major steps 4. What is the organizational pattern of an executive summary or abstract? The best way to draft a report is to write each major section separately. If you draft each section one at a time, you will avoid feeling overwhelmed by the size of the document. 5. What materials should be included in the methods...
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