Unit 204 - Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care
Outcome 1: Know how to recognise signs of abuse
1.1 Define the following types of abuse.
Physical abuse:- Physical abuse is defined as any physical force or violence that results in bodily injury, pain, or impairment. It includes assault, battery, and inappropriate restraint.
Sexual abuse:- Sexual abuse refers to any action that pressures or coerces someone to do something sexually they don't want to do. . It can also refer to behaviour that impacts a person's ability to control their sexual activity or the circumstances in which sexual activity occurs.
Emotional/Psychological abuse:- Emotional and Psychological abuse includes a range of non-physical controlling behaviours that cause emotional damage and undermine a person's sense of well-being.
Financial abuse:- The misuse of a person's funds and assets; obtaining property and funds without his/her knowledge and full consent, or in the case of an elderly person who is not competent, not in his/her best interests.
Institutional abuse:- Institutional abuse is the maltreatment of a person (often children or older adults) from a system of power. This can range from acts similar to home-based child abuse, such as neglect, physical and sexual abuse, and hunger, to the effects of assistance programs working below acceptable service standards, or relying on harsh or unfair ways to modify behaviour.
Self neglect:- Self neglect is unlike other forms of abuse which relate circumstances where there is a person other than the adult at risk who is causing significant harm to themselves.
Neglect by others:- Neglect is the failure of any person who has responsibility for the charge, care or custody of an adult at risk to provide the amount and type of care that a reasonable person would be expected to provide.
1.2 Identify the signs/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse.
Unexplained cuts, bruises, scalds, burns, bruises and scratches. Injuries and wounds in concealed places.
Appearing sedated i.e. over use of medication
Withdrawn and quiet
Nervous, Tearful, Anxious
Unwilling to undress/ show areas such as sacrum, arms, torso. Unexplained pain i.e. with holding of medication
Sores in genital areas
Bruising - especially on the inner thighs
Bite marks, scratches to breasts, face or neck
Difficulty in sitting/walking due to discomfort in the genital area Torn, blood stained clothing
Unexplained problems with catheters
Sudden onset of confusion
Changes in behaviour
Fear of making decisions
Obsession with sexual matters
Loss of weight
Change in body language - avoiding eye contact
Changes in appearance - unkempt
Unexplained changes in behaviour
Withdrawn and depressed
Frightened, anxious, aggressive
Fear of being wrong
Loss of weight
Lack of money for basic necessities such as food and heating Missing property such as ornaments, jewellery and family heir looms Unexplained withdrawals from bank accounts
Inability to explain what is happening to their income
May self neglect due to lack of funds
Fearful of spending money
Anxious, depressed, emotionally unstable when abuser is mentioned
treating adults like children
arbitrary decision making by staff group, service or organisation strict, regimented or inflexible routines or schedules for daily activities such as meal times, bed / awakening times, bathing / washing, going to the toilet lack of choice or options, such as food and drink, dress, possessions, daily activities and social activities lack of privacy, dignity, choice or respect for...
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