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Unit 201 Child And Young Person Develop

By dryan8823 Dec 04, 2014 4280 Words
Level 2 Certificate in Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools Unit 201 Child and Young person Development
1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years, to include: a) Physical Development
0-3 Years -
This is an important area of children’s overall development and one which can be assumed will take place automatically as they grow and mature. Although children do develop many skills naturally as they get older, it is essential that they have the opportunity to develop them in a variety of ways, and they will need support in order to do this. They will need to develop: Gross motor skills – using larger muscles such as biceps and triceps in their arms for throwing and their gastrocnemius muscle and hamstrings for walking and running. Fine motor skills – using smaller muscles such as those in fingers for holding pencils, using knives and forks and for buttoning or zipping up their clothes. Motor movement continues to improve as a baby approaches their first 6 month. A 3 month old kicks its legs when lying on their belly or back, and bats at and briefly grasps toys. Between 3 and 4 months, they should be rolling with belly to back first, and by 6 months will be rolling back to belly. As an infant approaches her first birthday, their motor skills continue to develop and they can begin to explore the world around them. At 6 months of age, the average baby can begin to sit without support, and begins to stand with support between 7 and 8 months of age. Between 8 and 9 months, infants begin crawling on their hands and knees, and walking with assistance occurred at approximately 9 months. The ability to stand alone takes a bit longer, this is usually about 11 months. By 12 months of age, the average baby can take a few steps on their own. Between 13 and 15 months, walking skills increase and they can begin to walk unassisted across a room. Playing movements, such as kicking and throwing balls, begin around 18 months, and at this time babies might start running and climbing stairs with assistance. Between the ages of 2 and 3, balance improves and the toddler walks with a smoother pattern. During this period babies learn to stand briefly on one foot, walk backwards, and walk on tiptoes. The average child can jump in place by age 2, and is able to jump over objects by age 3. Between 30 and 34 months, toddlers begin to walk up stairs alternating feet without a hand held or use of a railing. Around 35 months, children can run and play with standard playground equipment. 3-7 Years -

At this stage, children will be able to carry out more co-ordinated movements and will be growing in confidence as a result. They will be now improving the skills developed so far and will have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They will also become more confident in activities such as running, hopping kicking a ball and using large equipment. For example in the nursery where I work, children who have been at the school or at least a year and who are going into reception are at a more advanced stage than children who started in the new year, (only 2 month ago). For example older children in the class are mostly able to cut out shapes on a4 paper, whereas children who have just started struggle to hold scissors properly and cut out shapes. 7-12 Years –

Children will continue to grow and develop and will now be refining many of their skills. At this age children may start to have hobbies and interests which mean that they are more practised in some areas, for example, sport or dance. They may also be able to make very controlled finer movements such as those required for playing an instrument or sewing. Girls in particular will start to show some of the early signs of puberty from the age of 10 or 11. In boys, puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth. 12-16 Years –

During adolescence, young people will be growing stronger. Boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls will have completed the process of having regular periods. As a result, between these ages there can be a great variety between height and strength. At the end of this stage, most boys will be taller than most girls, although this is an advantage. 16-19 Years –

This is the stage at which young people are adults, but although many girls may have reached physical maturity, boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-20s. B) Communication and intellectual Development

It is widely known that communication and intellectual development are closely related due to the importance of its language and it’s linked to learning. Children’s intellectual development will also depend to a wide extent on their own experiences and the opportunities they are given from the early stages. It is also important to understand that children will learn in a variety of ways and that some will find particular tasks more difficult than other due to their own strengths and abilities. There have been a number of theories of development and many of them will influence the way in which we approach our work with children. Many psychologists will have different ideas on how children learn, for example some psychologists feel that a child’s ability is innate and others that it depends on the opportunities that they are given, this is often called the ‘nature versus nurture, debate. 0-3 Years –

From the earliest stages, adults will usually try to communicate with babies even though they are not yet able to understand what is being said. This is because it is important for babies to be stimulated and have an interest shown in them. In cases where babies are neglected and do not spend time with adults they will find it difficult to learn the skills of effective communication later. At this age babies will be listening to language from those around them and will enjoy songs and games. This is why many nursery’s and children’s centres put on classes like, ‘stay and play’, ‘baby play’ and kindermusic’ so that parents and children can play and sing together. Most will start to speak around 12 months, although pronunciation will not be clear and words will be usually used in isolation. Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together, and their vocabulary will start to increase fairly so that by 2 years most children will have about 200 words. Between 2 and 3 years, children will start to use negatives and plurals in their speech and although their vocabulary will increase rapidly, they will still make errors in grammar when speaking, for example, ‘I drawed it’ instead of, ‘I drew it’, this is because they are trying to make the sentence plural whereas in this case the word changes spelling when made plural. 3-7 Years –

As children become more social and have wider experiences, they will start to use an increasing number of familiar phrases and expressions. They will also ask large numbers of questions and will be able to talk about things in the past and future tenses with greater confidence. This will be a period of development in which children are becoming skilled at aspects of number and writing, as well as continuing to learn about their world. They will still be looking for adult approval and will be starting to learn to read. 7-12 Years –

By this stage most children will be fluent speakers of a language and will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. Their language skills will enable them to think about and discuss their ideas and learning in more abstract terms. They will they will be developing their own thoughts and preferences, and will be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. At this stage most children begin to write their own creative non fictional stories about a certain topic, the most popular is usually World War 2. 12-18 Years –

Young people will usually have a clear idea about their favourite subjects and activities as by this age children are turning into young adults should be making up their own mind and ideas. The children will also be more motivation in these areas as these area areas that they want to participate in. At this age they will be selecting classes in high school to take for their GCSE’s and will be selecting their A-Levels which they are able to achieve. These choices they make will deter what they do in their future careers and these choices must be appropriately selected to the course or career they would like. They may lack in confidence or avoid situations in which they will have to do less popular subjects, to the extent that they may truant. This is because it is very important to teenagers that they feel good about themselves and that they belong. 16-19 Years –

By the time they leave school when they are 18, young people will be thinking about career and university choices based on the qualifications they have selected. They will be able to focus on their areas of strength and look forward to continuing to develop these as they move on. C) Social, emotional and behavioural development

Social, emotional and behavioural development is about how children and young people feel about themselves and relate to others. They need to learn how to have the confidence to become independent of adults as they grow older and start to make their way in the world. They also need to learn acceptable forms of normal behaviour and be able to develop their independence. They will need to have a safe and secure environment in order to feel confident and develop to the best if their ability. 0-3 Years –

Babies and toddlers at this age will be starting to find out about their own identities. At this age they need to start to form a strong attachment with their parents of carers. In nursery’s children are given a ‘key person’ for whom will be their main contact. Some activates that the ‘key person’ may do with the children is their news. This is how the key person may be able to find out more about a child’s personal life and look for possible issues. Recently I made a disclosure for a child when I became concerned about what they were telling me during news time. At this stage of development children may start to have tantrums through frustration and will want to start doing thing for themselves. 3-7 Years –

Children will still be developing their identities and will be starting to play with their peers and socialise using imaginative play. This will help them to develop their concept of different roles in their lives. It is important that they are able to learn to understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. They will also respond well to being given responsibility, for example, at tidy up time the teacher may issue each child with their own individual job to do, and will need adult approval. 7-12 Years –

Children’s friendships will become more settles and they will have groups of friends. They will need to have the chance to solve problems and carry out activities which require more independence. They will continue to need praise and encouragement, and will be increasingly aware of what others may think of them. 12-16 Years –

At this stage, the self-esteem of children and young people can be very vulnerable. Their bodies will start to change and they go through puberty, but they will still need guidance in many different ways. They will want to be independent of adults and will want to spend time with friends their own age, but they will still continue to display childish behaviours. They can find that they are under the pressures of growing up and increasing expectations, and they may be unsure how to react in maybe be new found and different situations to which they are used to. 16-19 Years –

At this age children start to enter adult hood but will still need a lot of advice or guidance from other adults. They will lack experience and all teenagers at this age will vary in emotional maturity and the way in which they interact with others. 1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another. In secondary schools children have to take part in physical education which usually means they have to get changed in front of the rest of the people in their class the same sex. This may be a problem if someone has a problem with their weight, whether they may be anorexic or obese. This is because other children in the class may tease people who have weight problems because they look different, which in turn leaving them embarrassed and self-conscious. Also getting changed in front of his peers may embarrass children which could result in them not wanting to take part in PE, affecting their health even more. Children with these issues may then prefer to stay at home instead of going to school and being ridiculed, resulting in absences and then falling behind at school. Obesity can also affect the onset of puberty especially in boys as hormones get affected and slow down the male development. This again could lead to teasing and bullying, result in low self-esteem and even depression. There are many examples that can describe how different aspects of development can affect one another. Most of the time one aspect will lead to another, for example, if a child has a language barrier which may be through a foreign language as their first one or late development of speaking, this can stop other children from playing or talking to this child, this can lead to a decrease in their self-esteem and let him feel as an outsider, which may affect their social and behavioral development. If the child struggles learning the language then during lessons it will be difficult for the child to understand what the teacher is telling them to do, this will affect the child intellectual development and may mean they are behind everyone else at their rate of learning. The child may then become frustrated and they may become shy, not very communicative and isolated because they do not understand and there’s nothing they can do. They won’t be able to find a solution for the problem because the solution is for the child to learn English. As the child wouldn’t understand this they would continue to become frustrated in school which will affect the child’s emotional and behavioral development. In a family, if the eldest child has to act as a grown up due to the absence of a parent then this can have negative effects on the child’s development. For example Amy is a 14 year old girl, her mum left home after she had her second child, Amy’s brother. She lives with her father and brother. Her farther runs his own business and is a very busy man, he has to leave Katie with her brother to get him ready for school. When Katie comes home from school she has to cook her brother some tea and do all the house work as her dad is still at work and he believes that because she’s the only girl in the house that is her job. This could affect Amy in so many different ways, she could end up resenting her mother for leaving her and her family and could start resenting her family for having to do the chores and cooking their tea. This could lead to trust issues and may affect her emotional development. Amy could end up being emotional and becoming disruptive at school due to not knowing what to do with her emotions. She could become quite and moody. Amy could be falling behind at school due to being tired, with lack of concentration and not having enough time to do her work at home and this would have an effect on her intellectual development. Amy would not have any time after school to sit down and complete her homework without any stress as she would be taking care of her brother and cooking his tea. This means that the only time she can learn is when she is at School, but even then Amy would be worried about the responsibility she has when she finishes school. 2.1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development including: a) Background

Pupils will come from a range of different family environments, cultures and circumstances. In the school where I currently work there are children from, Polish, English and Irish-Traveller backgrounds. When a Polish family move to the UK and send their children to an English school in my own experience there is hardly any children that can speak Basic English. This makes it difficult and in some cases the school needs to hire a Polish speaking teaching assistant. At Huncoat Primary School they have a polish speaking teaching assistant who works in the nursery in a morning and in the juniors after dinner supporting children for whom polish is a second language. This can affect a child’s learning as if they can’t speak English then it’s going to be difficult for the teacher to interact with the children and teach them new things. Phonics would be to teach a Polish speaking child as it’s all about the English language, a language which the children hardly know. b) Health

Some children suffer from poor health or physical disability or impairment, this can restrict their physical development opportunities. For example, children with cerebral palsy who would need a wheel chair to move around would find it hard in PE lessons to join in with some sports that only require your legs to play. At first thought this may affect a child’s physical development but it also affects their social development, for example, on the playground children who need wheel chairs won’t be able to join in with other children playing games and socializing. The child’s emotional may be also impacted depending on their awareness of their needs and the extent to which they are affected. It is important that adults in the school are aware of how pupils may be affected of these conditions are circumstances, so that so that everybody in the school can support them by ensuring that they are included as far as possible. c) Environment

Poverty and deprivation are likely to have a significant effect on pupil development. Statistics shows that parents from deprived back grounds are less likely to be able to manage their children. In the school where I currently work you can see a massive difference between children who come from families with more disposable income as parents can buy better and toys which will benefit their children’s education better and are able to buy fresh foods, these families are likely to have a set time to have their tea and most probably sit around a table where they will learn manners. Were as children from deprived backgrounds will only get toys that their parents can afford. They will only eat low budget meals rich with artificial colours and preservatives which are bad for children’s concentration, also children from deprived families will probably eat their tea in front of the TV. 2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development The importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development is key to a child’s development. If a child falls behind with their work then all areas of their development may be affected. For example, if a child struggled with their reading and writing it may cause concern, but this may not be noticeable until the child is around the age of 5 to 7 because by this age they should have learnt how letters are formed and start to string words together. These are the main skills a child needs to help them develop in all areas. Due to poor reading and writing the child or young person will start to fall behind other children the same age. They may find it difficult to interact or make friends with others who are more advanced than them, in case they are bullied. They would struggle with their intellectual development not only with the reading and writing, but they would struggle with their memory and even their concentration. Observations of children should be made on a regular basis, this is one of the ways that teachers and teaching assistants can spot concerns in children’s development. These observations should be dated and filed with other observations every individual child. The teacher should then consider these observations when planning lessons so they can adapt to individual needs of children. If then the child continues to struggle this may mean there is an underlying problem, this could possibly mean the child has dyslexia. Once this is a concern the schools SENCO must be informed about the child situation so that the best can be done for that child.

3.1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people

3.2 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience

3.3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development Identified in both questions 3.1 and 3.2 all children go through a transition of change at some point during their lives, some have more than others, but it’s essential to make sure that children are not affected by the changes they are going through. Changes within a child’s life may be gradual or sudden, and they present the child with challenges which they must overcome. Transitions are stressful for children and young people, just as they are for adults, and the resulting stress can have significant effects on children’s emotional state and academic achievements in life. It depends on how a child or young person deals with transitions and how greatly affected by the support and response children get from those around them. A child's early experiences of transitions will have a big impact on how they handle transitions at later stages of life. As some changes of transitions are not anticipated, they can cause distress and feelings of lack of control in the child or young person. This can affect emotional and behavioral development, which can lead to possible impacts on physiological and intellectual development. It is important for children to have positive relationships during periods of transition, this is because they will need to feel secure in other areas of their lives. They may need to talk to someone about their insecurities during the transition and may need emotional support throughout the change. One main transition within a child's life is changing schools, this could be from: Nursery to primary school

Primary school to secondary school
Primary school to another primary school
Secondary school to another secondary school
This can make children feel insecure, nervous and anxious about the unknown. Whilst they may feel some sense of excitement about the new experiences they will be exposed too they will generally be uncertain about how they feel. They may be leaving behind good friends, teachers they may have bonded with, a familiar support network and may feel a huge sense of loss. If children are moving from primary school to secondary school with most of their friends then the transition will not be as hard for them to take. Although they are leaving familiar ground they will still have a positive relationships between friends, I believe this will make the move exciting for the children as they will want to talk to each other about it. Although some children may feel like it’s a big step from primary school to secondary and may feel that the work they will be doing will be too tough for them. This is a lack of confidence of their own ability and may lead them to not fulfilling their potential if they are not dealt with correctly. A parent could help their child by going through some of the work they will be doing in the up and coming school year, and giving the child positive feedback and support, if the parent feels the child may need extra support then they would need to contact the school to see what they could do to help. All secondary schools have open days where parents and children can go and look around the school and ask any questions about anything they may be uncertain of. For children who are moving to a new school the only positive relationship they may keep will be in the family. Moving to a new school may mean they lose contact with close friends and as a result their behavior may change, they may become withdrawn and emotional socially, instead of playing in a large group of friends they may struggle at their new school to make friends and feel left out, and this will have a negative impact on their confidence the longer they are left on their own. They may diminish academically as they struggle to fit in as a result in lack of confidence. Some children may start to demonstrate uncharacteristic behavior due to the trauma of changing environment in In addition children may become attention seeking and wanting to impress their new teacher.

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