Unit 2 Managing Paediatric Illness and Injury

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Topics: Bone fracture
Be able to provide first aid to an infant and a child with a suspected fracture and a dislocation.
1.1 Describe the common types of fractures.
Types of fracture
Fractures are divided into two types depending on whether or not they break through your skin. * Closed fractures. This is when your bone doesn't damage your skin. * Open (compound) fractures. In these fractures, the broken end of your bone breaks through your skin and may stick out.

* Hairline fracture. In which the bone does not separate because the line of break is so fine and only partially fractured. These fractures can be difficult to detect on x-rays. * Simple fracture. This is when your injury causes a single crack across the bone. * Complex fracture. These are also called spiral fractures due to their shape. They are caused by a twisting movement. Fractures in long bones, such as your thigh bone (femur) are often spiral fractures. The surfaces of the broken bone may not come together and be harder to heal properly. * Greenstick fracture. This is when your bone buckles and splits on one side, but just bends on the other. These usually occur in children as their bones are softer. * Comminuted fracture. In this type of fracture, your bone breaks into several fragments. This is more common after a serious accident. * Impacted fracture. This is when one of your bone fragments is driven into another after they separate.
Signs and symptoms include deformity, discoloration, crepitus (a cracking, grating or scraping type noise made when bone ends rub together), tenderness, swelling, inability to move the affected extremity, pain when moving the affected extremity, bleeding and/or bone protrusion. If nerve, muscle or vessel compromise exists, then numbness, tingling and loss of sensation and/or pulses may be encountered. If a significant amount of blood is lost, either through a wound or internally, the patient may exhibit signs and symptoms of shock.

1.2 Describe

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