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Unit 2

By Danny-Booth Jul 18, 2014 3051 Words

Assessment

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Save a copy of this document, either onto your computer or a disk Work through your Assessment, remembering to save your work regularly When you’ve finished, print out a copy to keep for reference Then, go to www.vision2learn.com and send your completed Assessment to your tutor via your My Study area – make sure it is clearly marked with your name, the course title and the Unit and Assessment number.

Name: Daniel Booth

Please note that this Assessment document has 11 pages and is made up of 4 Parts.

Part 1: Know the nutritional needs of children and young people

1. You have been asked to prepare nutritional information for the following people:

George, a 4-year-old boy
Callum, a 15-year-old boy.

Complete the table below with relevant information / values for each person.

Who?
This person’s energy requirement is...
This person’s nutritional requirements are...
Nutritional recommendations for this person are...
George, a 4-year-old boy

The energy requirements are 920Kcal – 1300Kcal

Carbohydrates

Vegetables

Fruit

Dairy

Protein

3 servings

2 servings

2 servings

2 servings

2 servings
Callum, a 15-year-old boy

The energy requirements are 1800Kcal – 2700Kcal

Carbohydrates

Vegetables

Fruit

Dairy

Protein

8 servings around 226g

6 servings

6 servings

3 servings

6 ½ servings

2a) Use the table below to plan a day’s healthy menu for George, the 4-year-old boy from Question 1. Your menu should include three meals, two snacks and drinks.

Menu
Which food groups?
Meal 1
20g Cheerio’s Breakfast Cereal
100ml whole milk

Carbohydrates
Milk

Meal 2
Chicken korma 90g
Brown rice 80g
Naan bread 20g
Carrot cake 40g

Meat and Protein
Carbohydrates
Fatty Or Sugary Foods
Meal 3
Baked beans 60g
Wholemeal toast 20g
Cucumber 40g
Rice pudding 80g
Sultanas 40g

Fruit and Vegetable’s
Carbohydrates
Milk and Dairy
Fatty Or Sugary Foods

Snack 1
Crusty brown roll 20g
Soft Cheese 20g
Carrot Sticks 40g

Carbohydrates
Milk and Dairy
Fruit and Vegetable’s

Snack 2
Plain Yoghurt 60g
Banana 40g

Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy

Drinks
Pure Orange Juice 100ml
Milk 100ml
Pure Apple Juice 100ml
Milk 100ml
Pure Orange Juice 100ml

Fruits
Milk and dairy

2b) Explain why the chosen meals and snacks are appropriate for George.

The meal plan I have chosen is full of all 5 food groups. It will give him enough vitamins and calcium and keep him on a balanced diet giving him enough energy and calories. There is also a wide variety of different food’s which will stop George from getting bored of eating his meals. I have given an idea portion size that is adequate for a child of George’s age so that they are not over eating and this will also make it look more appealing.

3a) Use the table below to plan a day’s healthy menu for Callum, the 15-year-old boy from Question 1. Your menu should include three meals, two snacks and drinks.

Menu
Which food groups?
Meal 1
Blueberries (80g)
Pancakes (60g)

Carbohydrates
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Meal 2
Hamburgers (90g)
Potato wedges (150g)
Broccoli and carrots (80g)
Apple crumble (100g)
Custard (100g)

Carbohydrates
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy
Fatty Or Sugary Foods
Meat and Protein

Meal 3
Vegetable risotto (200g)
Mixed salad (80g)
Baguette (65g)
Twin pot of yoghurt
(150g)

Carbohydrates
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy

Snack 1
Banana (150g)

Fruit and Vegetable’s

Snack 2
Banana bread (75g)

Fatty Or Sugary Foods

Drinks
Orange juice (150ml)
Glass of water (150ml)
Chocolate milk (150ml)

Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy
Fatty Or Sugary Foods

3b) Explain why the chosen meals and snacks are appropriate for Callum.

I have chosen this menu as it fits in with a teenagers active life style giving them a wide choice of meals that can be gotten at home and at school. They can get all there required Fibre, Protein, Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Folate. The foods listed above would also provide appropriate amounts of saturated fat, sugar and salt, and include more than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables. This also gives them enough energy intake from the food and drink intake of around 2220Kcal.

4. Briefly describe the importance of the following nutrients on the health of children and young people:

Iron and the impacts of any deficiency

If iron is lacking in the diet of children and young people haemoglobin cannot be produced, and the red blood cells are unable to deliver adequate oxygen to the tissues of the body. People who lack iron can develop anaemia the last stage of iron deficiency, which leads to various health problems which all result from the lack of oxygen to the tissue and blood.

Vitamin D and calcium (and their influence on bone development).

Have to little vitamin D can damage the way your body absorbs calcium, in children this can lead the rickets and adults osteomalacia (weak bones). Vitamin D is needed for good health and bone grow and strength, Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for life. In addition to building bones and keeping them healthy, calcium helps our blood clot, nerves send messages and muscles contract. About 99 percent of the calcium in our bodies is in our bones and teeth. Each day, we lose calcium through our skin, nails, hair, sweat, urine and faeces, but our bodies cannot produce new calcium.

5. Complete the table below with examples of good food sources for the key nutrients for children and young people.

Key nutrients
Good food sources
Calcium
milk, cheese and other dairy foods
bread and anything made with fortified flour
fish where you eat the bones such as sardines and pilchards
Iron
wholegrain, such as brown rice
dried fruit, such as dried apricots
liver
meat
beans
nuts
Vitamin A
cheese
eggs
fortified low-fat spreads
yoghurt
Vitamin C
oranges and orange juice
red and green peppers
strawberries
blackcurrants
broccoli
Brussels sprouts
potatoes
Vitamin D
oily fish, such as salmon, sardines and mackerel
eggs
fortified fat spreads
fortified breakfast cereals
powdered milk
Protein
Eggs
Milk
Yoghurt
Fish and seafood
Soya
Pork
Pistachio Nuts
Chicken and Turkey
Carbohydrates
Bananas
Brown Rice
Yoghurt
Wholegrain Bread
Fats
Peanut Butter
Fatty Fish
Nuts
Olive Oil
Eggs
Avocados
Cheese
Butter
Dark Chocolate

6. Describe the factors that can influence the eating patterns of the following age groups:

a) Young children (1 – 5 years old)
Parents or carers are the provider of food in the household and have a major influence on their diet and eating habits, if they stock the cupboards and fridge with chips, cookies, candy and sugary sweets, children become accustomed to these foods. If there parent or career was to stock the cupboards and fridge with fresh fruits, vegetables and healthy foods, children get used to these foods instead. However the parent or carer can’t feed their child healthy food then sit and eat unhealthy food in front of them as overtime the child will begin to demand the unhealthy food her parent or carer eats.

b) Teenagers (13 – 19 years old)

The main factors for teenagers are there lifestyle due to school, collage or university eating habits can be all over the place. The big effect is peer-pressure friends. If a group of friends go to McDonalds they will all eat from there not wanting to be the odd one out and not thinking about their health. Another factor is rushing being late for school and missing breakfast or skipping lunch due to hanging out with friends. A teenager’s lifestyle can be busy and this can impact on what foods they eat. Choosing convenience food over a healthier choice. What their parents stock the cupboards and fridges with if its filled with healthy food then they are likely to eat healthy if its filled with fatty sugary unhealthy food then this is what they will eat.

Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment.

Part 2: Know the nutritional needs of older people

1. Edith is 68 years old. She lives alone and enjoys an active lifestyle. She enjoys walking, cooking and attends a weekly yoga class. Use the space below to outline nutritional recommendations for Edith.

Edith who is 68 and who lives an active lifestyle would require approx. 1900Kcals, this is due to changes in body composition; a decrease in lean body tissue (muscle) and an increase in fat tissue. This means that, for a given bodyweight, older people tend to have less muscle and more fat, leading to a fall in basal metabolic rate (BMR). Edith needs an understanding that although she has this active lifestyle she still requires to eat a well-balanced diet that will get her enough fibre, vitamins and minerals. Calcium and vitamin D at her age is a very important factor for bone strength and to prevent osteoporosis this should not be missed in any part of her diet.

2. Based on the nutritional recommendations you identified in Question 1 above, use the table below to plan a day’s healthy menu for Edith. Your menu should include three meals, two snacks and drinks.

Menu
Which food groups?
Meal 1
Weetabix 200ml skimmed milk 1 tsp sugar

Carbohydrates
Milk and Dairy
Fatty Or Sugary Foods

Meal 2
2 slices wholemeal bread olive oil-based spread slice chicken/ham Mixed salad
Low fat / low sugar yoghurt

Carbohydrates
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy
Meat and Protein

Meal 3
lean cut beef and 3-4 small boiled potatoes and loads of veg Gravy – optional
Tinned or stewed fruit

Carbohydrates
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Meat and Protein

Snack 1
2 digestive biscuits
Item fruit

Fruit and Vegetable’s
Fatty Or Sugary Foods

Snack 2
Item fruit

Fruit and Vegetable’s

Drinks
200ml fruit juice
Mug tea/coffee
Glass Water
Glass Milk
200ml Fruit Juice
Glass Water
Fruit and Vegetable’s
Milk and Dairy

3. Explain why the chosen meals and snacks are appropriate for Edith.

I have selected this meal plan because it will suit Edith perfectly it has enough energy requirement for her active lifestyle as well and meeting or the needs for vitamins, minerals, fibre and calcium as well as giving enough fluids to the body. It has food from all 5 groups and the meals are not boring and can be changed slightly to make it more interesting i.e. beef to chicken.

4. What factors could influence Edith’s energy requirements as an older person?

Factors impacting energy requirements in Edith as an older person are physical and social. While Edith may be active enjoys walking and yoga as well as cooking this will require her to need more energy that and elderly women who requires and wheelchair. If Edith was to become unwell her social factor would be impacted as well and her physical momentum which means that her energy requirements would be less as she could be less mobile.

5. Describe the main reasons why older people may be at risk of malnutrition.

Some of the main reason why older people may be at risk of malnutrition can be from many reason like other preparing their meals this can either be because they get reliant on this and when the help goes they struggle to cook for them self’s or the meals cooked for them are not what they like to eat, money if they don’t have enough money to buy food they will by cheap ready meals. If an older person is eating alone they might not eat it all and lose interest or eat unhealthy meals were if they eat in a group they will eat a more healthy meal. There are many other factors mental, physical and medical but a support program should be put into place to make sure that older people get the correct support in place to prevent malnutrition.

Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment.

Part 3: Understand special dietary requirements

1. Describe some of the main reasons why people may have specific dietary requirements.

People have specific dietary requirements for many different reason these can be for religious, personal or health. Allergies and intolerances to certain foods can lead to very strict diets. If someone was to eat something they are allergic to it can cause an allergic reaction from very mild reaction to anaphylactic shock. An intolerance to foods is where the body is unable to digest foods properly which can cause stomach upsets and the foods will need to be eliminated from a person’s diet. Certain religious and ethnic groups have strict beliefs about what people belonging to these groups can eat. Some religions eliminate some foods totally while others food has to be prepared in a certain way for it to be suitable for eating. Some people choose a specific diet for their own personal reasons. The most common is vegetarian, which means they choose not to eat meat as they believe it is immoral for animals to be killed for them to eat.

2. Identify the special dietary requirements of two religious or ethnic groups.

a) Sikh’s are free the choose whether or not to have a meat free diet or not, they will not eat unhealthy food and only natural or simple food. The idea is eat food that is not hurting anything or anyone living and the share with others. They also won’t eat meat that has been slaughtered ritually like halal or kosher.

b) Buddhist don’t have any food restrictions in place however depending on which school of Buddhism they come from they may be a vegetarian.

3. Complete the table below by describing three different types of vegetarian diet and the key foods they eat / do not eat.

Vegetarian diet
Foods they eat / do not eat

Vegan

Vegans don’t eat Dairy products (milk, cheese and yoghurt), red meats or oily fish because they don’t believe in harming animals or eating anything that involves harming animals or from animals kept in captivity. The food they don’t eat the vitamins mineral proteins etc. can be gotten from other foods like tofu, linseed oil, walnuts, wholemeal bread, dark green vegetables, yeast extract spreads, dried fruits, fortified fats and sesame seeds.

Fruitarians

Fruitarians will eat only food that comes from a plants that are harvested without the plant being damaged. Some will eat bell peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers because they are classes as fruits and come from plants and some want. The 3 common types of fruit they can eat are berries, tree fruits (apples bananas) and watermelons while they won’t eat meat, processed food or frozen food it all has to be fresh.

Vegetarian

Vegetarians don’t eat Meat, Poultry or fish and generally products from animals they do however have healthy diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables and starchy foods, non-dairy sources of protein like eggs and beans some dairy and a small amount of fatty and sugary foods.

4. Create a checklist of the precautions you can take when preparing food for people with specific dietary requirements (for example, a person with a food allergy).

To create a meal for someone with food allergy certain precautions have to be put in place; 1. Find the allergy
2. Clean the preparation area in case and previous cooked foods contained the allergen. 3. Decide on the meal you are going to cook checking the ingredients. 4. While cleaning regular hand washing to prevent cross contamination as while you take every care to make sure something does not contain an allergen you cannot be sure.

Once you have completed this Part of your Assessment, save the work you have done so far – you will need to send your work to your tutor for marking when you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment.

Part 4: Understand barriers to healthy eating

1. The table below lists five key barriers that can prevent people from choosing a balanced diet. Complete the table by describing how each barrier can prevent people from choosing a balanced diet and suggesting at least two actions that could help to overcome each barrier.

Barrier
Description
Actions
Public confusion over healthy eating
People get mixed signals from magazines, misrepresented information, too much information which leads to confusion or people confused of which is better semi-skimmed-skimmed, 1% fat etc.. 1. Better labelling

2. Better representation and advertising of facts that mixed diets like Atkins, weight watchers etc. Costs
Most people believe the cost of eating healthy can be expensive so tend to be put off, This encourages people to buy cheaper food like frozen ready meals or processed food. 1.Look at recipe ideas that can cut cost of eating healthy

2. Shop around to get the best deal…
Accessibility
Accessibility is a big issue on healthy eating some people are in the middle of nowhere and are restricted to one shop, others rely on what people buy for them yet some just don’t have the transport to get to the shops and rely on walking so cannot carry much 1.Online shopping can be a great help and you get it delivered to your door

2. Meals on wheels to bring food to your door.
Pre-prepared and convenience foods
Ready meals are very popular frozen meal and are sold in nearly all shops but are not as healthy as fresh prepared meals, They contain a lot of salt and additives while covenant for the fast lifestyle and people who don’t like to cook it is not the healthy and good option. 1. Precook the weeks meals and freeze them for quick and convenient cooking during the week

2. Try eating with family or friends.
Individual lifestyle choices
Everyone’s lifestyle is different and can determine how what and where we eat, someone in a mad hectic lifestyle might eat on the run grabbing takeaways and eating more away from home while someone with a more quiet lifestyle may eat correct. 1. Don’t eat takeaways get up earlier and prepare a healthy packed lunch

2. Check your potion size this reducing the size of your portions can help in healthier eating.

Now that you have completed all four Parts of this Assessment, go to www.vision2learn.com and send your work to your tutor for marking.

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